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60% of global electricity is generated from Fossil

60.40 % Share of global electricity
[ 490, 820 ] gCO2eq/kWh Carbon Intensity

Fossil energy, widely referred to as fossil fuels, is a significant form of energy source comprising coal, oil, and natural gas. It is derived from the remains of ancient plants and animals that have undergone a process of transformation due to heat and pressure over millions of years in the earth's crust; hence, the name 'fossil'. Fossil fuels make up a large proportion of the energy sources used worldwide, primarily due to their high energy density and easy accessibility.

The conversion of fossil energy to electricity primarily follows a thermal power generation mechanism. The process begins with the burning of the fossil fuel which produces heat. This heat is then employed to boil water, creating steam. The high-pressure steam spins a turbine linked to a generator, which in turn creates electricity. Although the process may seem straightforward, it involves an intensive use of fossil fuels which results in an average carbon intensity for fossil fuels between 490 to 820 gCO2eq/kWh.

Despite being carbon-intense, the global reliance on fossil energy is impressively high due to its high availability and efficient delivery of energy. Fossil fuels are responsible for generating 60.4% of all electricity consumed globally. This is starkly evident in several nations such as Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Brunei, where over 89% of electricity is generated from fossil fuels, with a staggering 100% in Kuwait, Qatar and Brunei.

Contrastingly, could we envisage a greener, more sustainable future with low-carbon energy sources? Renewable energy sources like solar and wind possess incredibly low carbon intensities of 45 and 11 gCO2eq/kWh respectively. Nuclear energy, with a carbon intensity of a mere 12 gCO2eq/kWh, is another formidable contender in the low-carbon energy spectrum.

Solar energy harnesses the power of the sun, converting it directly into electricity using photovoltaic cells or indirectly via concentrated solar power systems. Wind energy takes advantage of the air in motion and transforms it into electricity using wind turbines. Both these sources do not produce any harmful emissions during the electricity generation process and are abundant, reliable, and inexhaustible.

Nuclear energy, derived from the process of nuclear fission, presents a highly efficient and potent form of low-carbon energy. Despite the small quantity of fuel required, nuclear power plants can produce a large amount of steady and reliable power for an extended period. Most importantly, nuclear energy emits close to zero greenhouse gases during electricity production, making it a clean and sustainable option contributing to global decarbonization.

Country/Region Watts / person % TWh
Bahrain 2476.9 W 99.3% 31.8 TWh
Kuwait 2350.1 W 100.0% 87.5 TWh
Qatar 2340.8 W 100.0% 55.1 TWh
United Arab Emirates 1508.2 W 88.7% 123.7 TWh
Brunei 1202.1 W 100.0% 4.7 TWh
Guam 1164.7 W 95.6% 1.7 TWh
New Caledonia 1150.2 W 86.3% 2.9 TWh
Saudi Arabia 1129.8 W 99.8% 355.8 TWh
Republic of China (Taiwan) 1122.1 W 83.6% 234.5 TWh
Bermuda 1073.0 W 100.0% 0.6 TWh
Singapore 1026.4 W 97.5% 53.4 TWh
St. Pierre & Miquelon 966.6 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
Oman 932.6 W 99.6% 36.9 TWh
Israel 873.7 W 93.2% 68.1 TWh
United States 849.3 W 58.5% 2507.2 TWh
Aruba 835.7 W 83.9% 0.8 TWh
South Korea 785.1 W 60.3% 356.5 TWh
U.S. Virgin Islands 775.5 W 97.1% 0.7 TWh
Gibraltar 695.5 W 100.0% 0.2 TWh
Turks & Caicos Islands 682.8 W 100.0% 0.3 TWh
Trinidad & Tobago 652.5 W 99.9% 8.7 TWh
Puerto Rico 621.6 W 97.2% 17.7 TWh
Australia 613.0 W 61.5% 139.2 TWh
Seychelles 611.1 W 87.7% 0.6 TWh
Bahamas 593.3 W 100.0% 2.1 TWh
Kazakhstan 591.1 W 87.5% 99.4 TWh
Japan 582.2 W 65.3% 635.5 TWh
Russia 561.9 W 63.1% 714.3 TWh
Faroe Islands 560.9 W 61.9% 0.3 TWh
Libya 542.5 W 95.9% 32.0 TWh
Hong Kong SAR China 536.6 W 73.7% 35.2 TWh
British Virgin Islands 513.1 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
St. Kitts & Nevis 503.3 W 95.5% 0.2 TWh
Turkmenistan 502.8 W 100.0% 27.9 TWh
Malaysia 496.9 W 81.0% 146.1 TWh
Iran 468.7 W 93.8% 361.0 TWh
Curaçao 468.5 W 79.0% 0.7 TWh
People's Republic of China 466.3 W 64.0% 5824.2 TWh
Belarus 438.4 W 83.8% 36.8 TWh
Malta 434.2 W 79.5% 2.0 TWh
Martinique 427.8 W 100.0% 1.5 TWh
American Samoa 405.4 W 100.0% 0.2 TWh
Antigua & Barbuda 404.1 W 94.3% 0.3 TWh
Barbados 401.9 W 92.5% 1.0 TWh
Lebanon 396.2 W 93.9% 19.4 TWh
Ireland 376.9 W 49.1% 16.5 TWh
Cyprus 374.0 W 78.6% 4.1 TWh
Netherlands 370.9 W 48.2% 56.9 TWh
Nauru 364.3 W 100.0% 0.0 TWh
South Africa 358.9 W 82.9% 186.7 TWh
Poland 334.4 W 71.3% 112.2 TWh
Canada 334.2 W 18.2% 111.7 TWh
Guadeloupe 331.3 W 68.8% 1.2 TWh
Czechia 331.2 W 41.8% 30.5 TWh
Serbia 323.9 W 61.0% 20.7 TWh
Mexico 284.1 W 81.4% 315.4 TWh
Bosnia & Herzegovina 281.7 W 58.7% 8.1 TWh
Azerbaijan 275.3 W 94.6% 24.9 TWh
Thailand 260.3 W 74.8% 163.3 TWh
Bulgaria 260.0 W 39.5% 15.7 TWh
Montserrat 257.2 W 100.0% 0.0 TWh
Mongolia 256.0 W 90.9% 7.5 TWh
Réunion 254.6 W 69.2% 2.0 TWh
Turkey 248.5 W 57.2% 184.6 TWh
Montenegro 247.7 W 37.4% 1.4 TWh
The World 247.6 W 60.4% 17157.1 TWh
Iraq 241.2 W 79.4% 92.0 TWh
Germany 233.9 W 36.2% 170.9 TWh
North Macedonia 230.7 W 61.9% 4.3 TWh
St. Lucia 222.4 W 100.0% 0.3 TWh
Greece 219.9 W 43.7% 20.1 TWh
Italy 215.7 W 40.0% 111.9 TWh
Estonia 214.0 W 31.3% 2.5 TWh
Dominica 204.9 W 76.5% 0.1 TWh
Greenland 202.9 W 16.7% 0.1 TWh
Cook Islands 201.1 W 60.0% 0.0 TWh
Argentina 200.8 W 58.9% 79.7 TWh
Mauritius 199.5 W 78.8% 2.3 TWh
Algeria 198.0 W 98.8% 76.6 TWh
Egypt 193.0 W 88.8% 184.7 TWh
Grenada 192.4 W 100.0% 0.2 TWh
Suriname 186.2 W 35.5% 1.0 TWh
Moldova 185.7 W 91.7% 5.0 TWh
EU 182.6 W 28.2% 711.8 TWh
Uzbekistan 181.5 W 87.8% 54.2 TWh
Vietnam 180.4 W 55.0% 154.0 TWh
Chile 179.9 W 36.7% 30.7 TWh
French Polynesia 176.5 W 67.1% 0.5 TWh
French Guiana 175.9 W 34.0% 0.4 TWh
Slovenia 175.4 W 23.0% 3.3 TWh
Tunisia 171.9 W 98.3% 18.5 TWh
Jordan 171.3 W 76.0% 16.7 TWh
Laos 166.2 W 27.0% 10.8 TWh
Cuba 157.5 W 78.6% 15.5 TWh
United Kingdom 155.7 W 35.1% 91.8 TWh
Guyana 151.8 W 87.0% 1.1 TWh
Belgium 149.8 W 18.8% 15.2 TWh
Dominican Republic 149.5 W 82.8% 14.6 TWh
Jamaica 146.9 W 83.7% 3.6 TWh
Spain 141.2 W 22.6% 58.7 TWh
Maldives 133.5 W 92.4% 0.6 TWh
Croatia 132.8 W 26.1% 4.7 TWh
St. Vincent & Grenadines 131.3 W 75.0% 0.1 TWh
Armenia 130.1 W 43.4% 3.2 TWh
Georgia 118.4 W 26.9% 3.9 TWh
Portugal 110.4 W 17.2% 9.9 TWh
India 109.8 W 75.9% 1353.8 TWh
Denmark 109.0 W 17.1% 5.6 TWh
Hungary 108.7 W 21.8% 9.2 TWh
Belize 108.4 W 38.4% 0.4 TWh
New Zealand 106.2 W 11.2% 4.8 TWh
Indonesia 105.4 W 81.6% 252.9 TWh
Romania 104.5 W 31.3% 17.7 TWh
Morocco 102.0 W 78.4% 33.1 TWh
Macao SAR China 98.1 W 10.2% 0.6 TWh
Botswana 96.1 W 54.1% 2.2 TWh
Peru 91.3 W 45.4% 27.0 TWh
Philippines 87.5 W 77.4% 87.3 TWh
Syria 85.7 W 95.5% 16.0 TWh
Latvia 82.4 W 20.6% 1.4 TWh
Austria 81.7 W 10.3% 6.4 TWh
Finland 77.6 W 4.9% 3.8 TWh
Bolivia 76.8 W 71.5% 8.1 TWh
Tonga 75.4 W 87.5% 0.1 TWh
Panama 75.0 W 25.6% 2.9 TWh
Ukraine 74.6 W 25.4% 28.5 TWh
Cape Verde 73.8 W 84.4% 0.4 TWh
Slovakia 71.0 W 11.4% 3.4 TWh
Equatorial Guinea 68.4 W 69.0% 1.0 TWh
Colombia 65.1 W 33.4% 29.4 TWh
Honduras 63.8 W 48.0% 5.7 TWh
Venezuela 62.4 W 20.1% 15.4 TWh
Gabon 61.9 W 44.7% 1.3 TWh
Congo - Brazzaville 59.7 W 75.9% 3.0 TWh
Ecuador 59.5 W 25.3% 9.3 TWh
Samoa 57.4 W 64.7% 0.1 TWh
France 54.1 W 6.3% 30.6 TWh
Sri Lanka 53.4 W 62.3% 10.2 TWh
Fiji 51.9 W 37.2% 0.4 TWh
Bangladesh 49.7 W 88.5% 73.8 TWh
Ghana 47.4 W 65.1% 13.6 TWh
São Tomé & Príncipe 46.0 W 90.0% 0.1 TWh
Timor-Leste 45.8 W 100.0% 0.5 TWh
Papua New Guinea 41.0 W 73.5% 3.6 TWh
El Salvador 36.9 W 24.6% 2.0 TWh
Nicaragua 35.0 W 35.1% 2.1 TWh
Mauritania 34.1 W 66.3% 1.4 TWh
Côte d’Ivoire 31.9 W 69.9% 7.7 TWh
Guatemala 31.3 W 33.4% 4.8 TWh
Norway 30.9 W 1.0% 1.5 TWh
Pakistan 30.6 W 47.8% 61.9 TWh
Senegal 30.3 W 75.0% 4.5 TWh
Uruguay 29.7 W 7.4% 0.9 TWh
Cambodia 28.1 W 33.3% 4.1 TWh
Myanmar (Burma) 26.8 W 57.8% 12.7 TWh
Brazil 26.8 W 7.6% 50.3 TWh
Kiribati 26.6 W 100.0% 0.0 TWh
Lithuania 26.1 W 4.8% 0.6 TWh
Zimbabwe 25.8 W 37.0% 3.6 TWh
Western Sahara 25.8 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
Kyrgyzstan 25.7 W 10.1% 1.5 TWh
Tajikistan 20.3 W 8.8% 1.7 TWh
Comoros 19.5 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
Vanuatu 17.9 W 71.4% 0.1 TWh
Solomon Islands 17.7 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
Angola 15.3 W 28.2% 4.6 TWh
Luxembourg 14.8 W 1.8% 0.1 TWh
Palestinian Territories 14.7 W 9.3% 0.7 TWh
Sudan 14.1 W 33.9% 5.6 TWh
Eritrea 13.9 W 97.8% 0.4 TWh
Nigeria 13.7 W 75.6% 25.6 TWh
Costa Rica 13.3 W 4.9% 0.6 TWh
Mozambique 13.2 W 18.6% 3.7 TWh
Gambia 13.0 W 100.0% 0.3 TWh
Cameroon 12.7 W 37.5% 3.0 TWh
Mali 11.3 W 64.0% 2.2 TWh
North Korea 10.7 W 16.8% 2.4 TWh
Yemen 10.1 W 83.0% 2.9 TWh
Haiti 8.6 W 86.9% 0.9 TWh
Liberia 8.6 W 42.4% 0.4 TWh
Tanzania 8.1 W 54.5% 4.5 TWh
Zambia 8.1 W 7.8% 1.4 TWh
Burkina Faso 7.9 W 54.1% 1.5 TWh
Guinea 6.4 W 27.3% 0.8 TWh
Djibouti 6.2 W 10.2% 0.1 TWh
Togo 6.1 W 31.9% 0.5 TWh
South Sudan 5.9 W 98.2% 0.6 TWh
Madagascar 5.4 W 65.6% 1.4 TWh
Guinea-Bissau 4.4 W 100.0% 0.1 TWh
Eswatini 3.8 W 2.4% 0.0 TWh
Namibia 3.2 W 1.9% 0.1 TWh
Rwanda 2.9 W 38.6% 0.3 TWh
Kenya 2.9 W 9.9% 1.3 TWh
Somalia 2.5 W 90.2% 0.4 TWh
Benin 2.0 W 26.1% 0.2 TWh
Chad 2.0 W 96.8% 0.3 TWh
Niger 1.8 W 24.8% 0.4 TWh
Malawi 1.3 W 16.2% 0.2 TWh
Iceland 1.3 W 0.0% 0.0 TWh
Paraguay 1.2 W 0.2% 0.1 TWh
Burundi 1.0 W 23.9% 0.1 TWh
Afghanistan 0.4 W 2.1% 0.1 TWh
Uganda 0.3 W 3.0% 0.1 TWh
Sierra Leone 0.3 W 9.5% 0.0 TWh
Congo - Kinshasa 0.0 W 0.3% 0.0 TWh
Sweden 0.0 W 0.0% 0.0 TWh
Ethiopia 0.0 W 0.1% 0.0 TWh
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