In 2011, French Guiana's electricity consumption was heavily dominated by low-carbon sources, with these accounting for slightly over two-thirds of its total consumption. The lion's share of this renewable energy came from hydropower, creating more than half of the total electricity. Fossil fuels, despite their environmental drawbacks, represented slightly over a third of electricity generation. In contrast, solar energy, while clean and sustainable, had yet to significantly make its mark. It made a minor contribution to the region's electricity profile, producing less than 5%.
To further boost its low-carbon electricity generation, French Guiana could look to other countries where such practices are well established. For instance, various European nations, such as France, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Sweden, have successfully harnessed nuclear power to meet a significant percentage of their electricity demands, ranging from 30% in Sweden to 66% in France. Wind power could be another viable option, given its successful implementation in Denmark, where it generates close to 60% of the nation's total electricity. Given French Guiana's tropical climate, it might also examine the achievements of nations where solar power has made substantial inroads. For instance, Chile and Australia utilize solar power for 20% and 18% of their electricity generation, respectively.
The history of low-carbon electricity in French Guiana reveals a strong leaning towards hydropower. The early 21st century saw a steady utilization of this energy source without significant fluctuations; it remained the primary source of the region's electricity from 2001 through 2010. However, the region seemed to hit a slight snag in 2011, when there was a marginal drop in hydropower generation. Despite this dip, solar and biofuels as sources of electricity remained stable in 2011, with neither showing an increase or decrease that year. Thus, across the first decade of the century, French Guiana consistently leveraged low-carbon sources, primarily hydropower, in its electricity consumption.