As of 2011, French Guiana had an electricity consumption purely established within its borders, as it neither imported nor exported electricity. The energy mix used for this consumption was largely dominated by forms of low-carbon energy, which made up a little over two thirds (approximately 66%) of electricity generated. Within these low-carbon sources, hydropower emerged as the most significant contributor, forming the bulk of electricity production with just over 61%. In addition, solar energy made up close to 4% of the electricity produced, with biofuels trailing behind at a mere 1%. On the other hand, the territory relied on fossil fuels for almost a third (34%) of its electricity production, highlighting an area of potential improvement in moving towards a cleaner energy system.
One way for French Guiana to increase its low-carbon electricity generation could be to learn from the strategies of other countries with high rates of clean energy production. For instance, many countries like France, Ukraine, and Slovakia generate more than half of their electricity from nuclear energy, a low-carbon source. France, in particular, generates around 61% of its electricity from nuclear power. Given the success of these nations in significantly reducing their reliance on fossil fuels, French Guiana could explore the potential of nuclear power as a more substantial part of its energy mix. Furthermore, while the territory already harnesses solar and hydropower to a certain extent, other nations have achieved noteworthy success with wind power. Denmark, for instance, generates around 52% of its electricity from wind. Operating in a similar geographical context, French Guiana may be able to enhance its low-carbon electricity generation through further investment in wind, alongside the other mentioned sources.
The history of low-carbon electricity production in French Guiana has seen considerable stability, particularly in the generation of hydropower. From 2001 onwards, there appears to be a plateau in hydroelectric generation, maintaining a steady output throughout the decade. This consistency seemed to hold through 2010 as well, with minimal changes reported in both the production of hydropower and biofuels. However, there was a slight drop in hydropower generation by 0.1 TWh in 2011, suggesting some minor disruptions or possibly indicative of a shift towards other forms of low-carbon energy. The reporting of solar power generation, beginning in 2011, supports this premise, even though it exhibited no change within the reported year. Overall, the production of low-carbon electricity in French Guiana appears to have favored constancy rather than rapid expansion or shifts between different types of energy.