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Electricity in Germany in 2023

Global Ranking: #25
61.4% #56 Low-carbon electricity
645.83 watts #52 Generation / person
303.58 gCO2eq/kWh #67 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, more than half of Germany's electricity consumption, around 61.43%, was produced by low-carbon energy sources. Of these, wind energy stood at the forefront, contributing almost a third of the total electricity supply. Solar and biofuels too made significant contributions, with solar covering close to 12% of the electricity demand, and biofuels around 10%. Hydropower and nuclear energy, although representing lesser shares, around 8.4% and 1.43% respectively, still played a part in the low-carbon electricity generation. On the other hand, fossil fuels, mainly coal and gas, accounted for nearly 36% of the total electricity consumed in the country, a share that is desirable to reduce in the future.


To boost its low-carbon electricity generation, Germany can take cues from other successful countries and expand its current wind and solar energy capacities since both these technologies are already generating large amounts of electricity in the country. The Scandinavian countries, particularly Denmark with its wind energy accounting for almost three-fifths of its electricity generation, can be looked upon as front-runners in this aspect. Furthermore, nuclear energy, although making a lesser contribution in Germany, forms the spine of electricity supply in numerous countries. For instance, countries like France, Slovakia, and Ukraine generate more than half of their electricity from nuclear energy, demonstrating its promise.


The journey of low-carbon electricity in Germany is characterized by various trends over the years. The country had seen an upward trend in nuclear power generation from the late 70s to the late 80s, with the most significant leap of around 34 TWh in output in 1985. By the early 1990s, nuclear power output slipped, leading to escalating concerns. The significant declines in nuclear electricity generation during the first two decades of the 21st-century marked a major shift in the country's energy narrative. Notably, the decline of around 27 TWh in nuclear power generation in 2007, and a further reduction by 33 TWh in 2011, speaks of this trend. However, the growth of wind power has provided a fresh breath of air to the low-carbon electricity scene in Germany, with notable increments in the first two decades of the 21st century. For instance, there was an increase in wind power generation of around 11 TWh in 2011, and further increases in the following years, reaching peaks of around 22 TWh and 26 TWh in 2015 and 2017, respectively.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1990 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1991 to 1992 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1993 to 1995 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1996 to 1998 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1999 to 2002 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2003 to 2007 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2008 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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