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Electricity in Germany in 2023

Global Ranking: #28
53.2% #69 Low-carbon electricity
49.41 % #40 Electrification
703.08 watts #49 Generation / person
351.60 gCO2eq/kWh #85 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Germany's electricity generation landscape presents a notable mix of low-carbon and fossil energies. More than half of the electricity, about 53%, comes from low-carbon sources, underscoring Germany's commitment to cleaner energy. Wind power leads the low-carbon category, contributing nearly 27%, followed by solar at around 12% and biofuels at approximately 9%. Hydropower and nuclear energy provide smaller shares, at roughly 4% and 2%, respectively. Fossil fuels still account for a significant portion, with around 45% of the electricity. This includes coal, which makes up about 26%, and gas, which contributes nearly 15%. Net imports cover the remainder, constituting a marginal 2%.


To further increase its low-carbon electricity generation, Germany could focus on expanding its existing wind and solar energy capacities. With wind power already producing a substantial amount of electricity, enhancing both onshore and offshore wind farms could significantly boost green energy production. Similarly, solar energy, which currently makes up almost 12% of Germany's electricity, can be increased through broader installation of solar panels and supporting infrastructure. Looking at countries like France and Slovakia, which generate 65% and 62% of their electricity from nuclear power, Germany could also prioritize nuclear energy as a reliable clean energy source. Emulating these successful models, Germany could achieve a more sustainable energy mix while reducing the adverse impacts of fossil fuels, such as climate change and air pollution.


Historically, Germany's low-carbon electricity generation has seen significant shifts, particularly with nuclear energy. During the 1980s, nuclear power saw substantial increases, such as in 1984 and 1985, when it grew by 26.3 TWh and 34.3 TWh respectively. However, this trend reversed dramatically from the late 2000s onward. Notably, in 2011, nuclear electricity generation decreased by 32.6 TWh, reflecting Germany's policy changes post-Fukushima. This decline continued, with substantial drops in 2020, 2022, and 2023, reflecting a significant phase-out. Conversely, wind energy has shown consistent growth, particularly in 2015 and 2017, with increases of 22.1 TWh and 25.8 TWh respectively. Despite a minor setback in 2021, wind power remains a cornerstone of Germany’s clean electricity journey. Meanwhile, solar energy marked a notable growth of 11.4 TWh in 2022, confirming its rising importance in Germany's low-carbon portfolio. By learning from the past and leveraging advancements in wind, solar, and nuclear technologies, Germany can continue to evolve towards a cleaner and more sustainable electricity future.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1990 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1991 to 1992 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1993 to 1995 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1996 to 1998 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1999 to 2002 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2003 to 2007 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2008 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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