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Electricity in India in 2023

Global Ranking: #136
22.0% #124 Low-carbon electricity
51.02 % #35 Electrification
158.82 watts #141 Generation / person
638.22 gCO2eq/kWh #191 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, India's electricity consumption heavily relies on fossil fuels, with coal contributing to almost all of the 1526.74 TWh generated by fossil sources. Low-carbon or clean energy sources account for only a smaller portion of the total electricity generation, with approximately 430.17 TWh coming from hydropower, solar, wind, nuclear, geothermal, and biofuels. Specifically, hydropower and solar are leading among the low-carbon sources with around 149.17 TWh and 113.41 TWh respectively, while nuclear energy contributes a moderate 48.2 TWh. Comparing this to the global average of 432 watts per person, India's overall electricity generation per person is quite low. Insufficient electricity generation can hinder economic growth, limit access to essential services, and contribute to energy poverty.


To increase its low-carbon electricity generation, India can look to several leading countries as models. For example, the People's Republic of China has made significant strides in wind and solar energy, generating 886 TWh from wind and 584 TWh from solar. The United States has also shown robust nuclear energy output, with 775 TWh being sourced from nuclear plants. From a developmental perspective similar to India's, Brazil's achievements in wind energy, producing around 96 TWh, also offer valuable insights. These countries demonstrate that a diverse approach incorporating wind, solar, and nuclear energy can substantially enhance low-carbon electricity generation, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, and mitigate negative impacts like climate change and air pollution.


Historically, India's low-carbon electricity evolution shows varied trends. From the late 1980s to early 2000s, hydropower saw consistent annual increases, such as 10.4 TWh in 1988 and 17.4 TWh in 2005. However, there have been fluctuations, including a notable decline of 15.9 TWh in 2012. Solar power witnessed a significant upsurge starting in 2017 with a 10 TWh increase and continued to grow, reaching an impressive 26.9 TWh increase in 2022. Wind energy has also seen positive increments, exemplified by a 12.1 TWh rise in 2023. Although there have been setbacks in hydro generation, particularly with a decrease of 25.8 TWh in 2023, the growth in solar and wind power positions India well to further expand its low-carbon electricity portfolio and reduce its dependency on fossil fuels.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1985 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1986 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1998 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2002 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2003 to 2015 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2016 to 2017 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2020 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2021 to 2023 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
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