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Electricity in India in 2023

Global Ranking: #109
24.3% #118 Low-carbon electricity
146.16 watts #142 Generation / person
617.60 gCO2eq/kWh #179 Carbon Intensity

In India, the bulk of electricity generation in 2023 was from fossil fuel sources, totalling close to 1369 TWh. Coal contributed to the majority, accounting for nearly 1289 TWh implying a large dependence on this source. On the other hand, low-carbon energy produced almost 438 TWh, with solar, wind, and hydropower being major contributors, alongside nuclear and biofuels, which contributed a smaller share. This energy mix contrasts significantly with the global average as more than two-thirds of India's electricity is generated from fossil fuels. Given the global electricity generation average of 410 watts/person, this indicates low efficiency in India's power sector, which potentially results in regular power cuts and inadequate power supply in many regions.


Looking at other countries, India can tap into its wind and solar potentials to increase clean energy generation similarly to how the People's Republic of China is leading in wind and solar power generation. As in the United States and France, nuclear energy can also play a significant role in India's transitioning to low-carbon energy sources. Encouraging large-scale investments in these sectors along with supportive policies, technological advancements, and capacity building can facilitate this transition. Moreover, setting ambitious targets for carbon reduction and aligning them with global climate objectives can be beneficial, driving the growth of clean energy solutions and bringing India closer to countries with more sustainable energy practices.


Concerning the history of low-carbon electricity in India, there has been a consistent increase in the generation of hydroelectric power since the late 1980s, with occasional fluctuations. Notably, there was a major decline of around 30 TWh in 2023. In recent years, solar power has seen an increase in electricity generation from a little over 10 TWh in 2017 to roughly 25 TWh in 2023. Notably, a substantial increase in wind power generation was also observed in 2023. This growth in solar and wind power generation is a positive sign, suggesting a maturing market and an increasing shift towards cleaner energy sources. However, it doesn't offset the heavy reliance on fossil fuels. Therefore, there's a need for a more aggressive shift towards low-carbon energy sources, including nuclear power, to truly make a difference in India's impact on climate change.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1985 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1986 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1998 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2002 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2003 to 2015 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2016 to 2017 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2020 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2021 to 2022 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
For the year 2023 the data source is IEA.
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