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Electricity in Norway in 2023

Global Ranking: #2
98.5% #6 Low-carbon electricity
74.71 % #5 Electrification
3241.46 watts #2 Generation / person
30.83 gCO2eq/kWh #5 Carbon Intensity

Norway sets a commendable example in the realm of electricity generation, with more than 98% of its electricity coming from low-carbon sources. This achievement is primarily driven by hydropower, which accounts for roughly 89% of Norway's electricity generation. Wind power also contributes significantly, providing nearly 10% of the electricity mix. Fossil fuels, on the other hand, are almost negligible, making up less than 2%. Additionally, Norway plays a crucial role as a net exporter of electricity, aiding its neighbors in reducing their carbon footprints. However, the next pivotal task for Norway involves electrifying other sectors like transport, heating, and industry, which will necessitate a considerable increase in electricity production.


To further boost low-carbon electricity generation, Norway could consider expanding its wind power capacity given the country's favorable wind conditions. Offshore wind farms, in particular, hold significant potential and have the added benefit of minimal land use. Additionally, investing in nuclear energy could provide a stable and reliable source of low-carbon electricity, complementing the intermittent nature of wind power. Encouraging technological advancements and innovation in solar energy could also diversify the clean energy portfolio. By adopting a multi-faceted approach that includes these clean energy sources, Norway can ensure a resilient and sustainable electricity supply for the future.


Historically, Norway's reliance on hydropower has seen significant fluctuations. In the early 1980s, there was a notable increase in hydroelectricity with an additional 9 TWh in 1981 and 13 TWh in 1983. However, the early 1990s experienced some setbacks with a substantial decline of almost 11 TWh in 1991. The mid-90s saw a recovery, only to be followed by a significant 18.3 TWh decrease in 1996. The turn of the millennium brought both peaks and troughs, including a record increase of over 20 TWh in 2000, followed by declines like the 21.3 TWh drop in 2001 and a substantial 23.8 TWh decrease in 2003. The first decade of the 21st century continued this trend of variability, but the period from 2012 onwards has shown both growths, such as the 21.3 TWh increase in 2012, and some declines, including the 15.7 TWh drop in 2022. This historical perspective underscores the need for diversifying Norway's low-carbon electricity sources to achieve more stability in its energy system.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2018 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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