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Electricity in Afghanistan in 2021

Global Ranking: #175
11.3% #151 Low-carbon electricity
17.65 watts #192 Generation / person
382.22 gCO2eq/kWh #90 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Afghanistan's electricity consumption was significantly lower compared to the global average of 410 watts per person. Almost all of Afghanistan's electricity is sourced from imports amounting to 5.37 TWh. The country's dependence on externally sourced power not only puts it in a fragile position but also contributes to the widespread energy poverty, as there are sections of the population that barely have access to electricity. This low electricity generation creates multiple challenges, such as stifling industrial growth, limiting access to modern conveniences like home appliances, and hindering digital connectivity.


Afghanistan can increase their low-carbon electricity generation by exploring both large-scale and small-scale projects for wind, solar, and nuclear power. Looking at countries with similar topography and climate, India has demonstrated success with solar power, generating a whopping 120 TWh. Likewise, countries like Turkey and Spain have effectively harnessed energy from wind, generating 34 TWh and 61 TWh respectively. Following these examples, Afghanistan could strategically deploy solar panels in their sunny, arid regions and implement wind farms in their mountainous terrains, thereby reducing dependence on electricity imports while embracing a more sustainable, green approach to power generation.


The historical trend of low-carbon electricity in Afghanistan has primarily revolved around hydroelectric power. However, this has been subject to significant fluctuations over the years. Towards the end of the 20th century, hydroelectric power saw slight decreases in 1991 and 1992, followed by further decline around 1995 and 1997. However, the early 2000s marked a positive change with small increments in hydroelectric power generation. Around 2009, the produced power reached a plateau and unfortunately since 2010, the trend has generally been on the downward slope again, accentuating the need for the country to diversify its energy sources.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1991 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1992 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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