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Electricity in EU in 2023

Global Ranking: #21
69.7% #42 Low-carbon electricity
649.41 watts #51 Generation / person
210.89 gCO2eq/kWh #45 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, the majority of electricity consumption in the European Union (EU) comes from low-carbon sources, accounting for almost 70% of all power usage. The largest contributor in the low-carbon category is nuclear energy at over 23%, followed closely by wind power with just over 18% of consumption. Other significant contributors to low-carbon power include hydropower at 15% and solar energy at slightly above 8%. Biomass generated power represents just under 4% of the consumption. Fossil fuels account for a bit more than a quarter of the Union's power usage, with gas at 15%, and coal at approximately 12%.


The EU could increase its low-carbon electricity generation by further developing its nuclear and wind power sectors. Countries like France and Slovakia, which generate 66% and 61% of their electricity from nuclear power respectively, serve as pertinent examples for expansion in the nuclear domain. Similarly, Denmark and Germany, which harness 59% and 30% of their power from wind energy, offer a roadmap for further growth. The EU could leverage the strategies, technologies, and policies implemented in these countries to boost its own low-carbon electricity output.


Looking back at the history of low-carbon electricity in the EU, nuclear power saw consistent growth from the early 1980s throughout that decade, with generation increasing by over 100 TWh in certain years. However, in the early 2000s and more recently in the last couple of years, the generation of hydro and nuclear power saw some drastic declines compared to the preceding year, reducing their contribution to the Union's electricity. Wind power, on the other hand, has demonstrated a robust upwards trend, with considerable increases in electricity generation in the recent years of 2017 and 2019. Simultaneously, current data for 2023 indicates a resurgence in hydropower generation, highlighting the continuously evolving dynamics of the EU's low-carbon electricity landscape.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

This is an aggregate region with data from: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.
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