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Electricity in EU in 2023

Global Ranking: #21
66.8% #46 Low-carbon electricity
697.79 watts #50 Generation / person
227.57 gCO2eq/kWh #48 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, the European Union's electricity consumption is composed of a significant portion of low-carbon energy sources. More than half of the electricity, approximately 67%, comes from clean energy, including nuclear, wind, hydropower, solar, and geothermal and biofuels. Out of these, nuclear energy makes up nearly a quarter of the total consumption at around 23%, while wind contributes about 17%. Hydropower and solar energy account for close to 12% and 9% respectively. On the other hand, fossil fuels still play a considerable role, providing about 32% of the electricity, with gas and coal being the primary contributors, each supplying around 17% and 13%. Oil is barely a factor, generating just over 1% of the electricity.


To further increase low-carbon electricity generation, the EU should focus on expanding its existing nuclear and wind energy capacities. France and Slovakia, where nuclear power generates over 60% of the electricity, serve as excellent examples of how to effectively implement and scale up this technology. Similarly, Denmark showcases the potential of wind energy, generating more than half of its electricity this way. By investing in and adopting these strategies, the EU can significantly enhance its clean energy portfolio. The experiences of countries like Ireland and Uruguay, where wind energy accounts for around a third of electricity generation, also offer valuable insights into scaling up the wind energy sector.


The history of low-carbon electricity in the EU shows various phases of growth and challenges. In the early 1980s, nuclear power experienced a rapid expansion, with significant increases of 80 TWh in 1981, 55 TWh in 1983, and over 100 TWh in 1984 and 1985. However, there have been notable declines as well, particularly in recent years, such as the drop of about 83 TWh in 2020 and 123 TWh in 2022. Despite these fluctuations, the development of wind energy has consistently shown positive trends, with increases of around 46 TWh in both 2017 and 2019, and 50 TWh in 2023. While some periods, like 2022, saw substantial declines in hydro power at 72 TWh, solar energy simultaneously made significant gains, adding nearly 48 TWh in the same year. Understanding these trends highlights the potential and resilience of various clean energy technologies in shaping the future of the EU's electricity sector.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

This is an aggregate region with data from: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.
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