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Electricity in Romania in 2023

Global Ranking: #47
68.6% #44 Low-carbon electricity
41.09 % #71 Electrification
334.33 watts #104 Generation / person
215.68 gCO2eq/kWh #46 Carbon Intensity

In terms of electricity consumption, Romania seems to be progressing in a balanced manner. As of 2023, nearly half of the country's electricity comes from low-carbon sources, with hydropower leading at 18 TWh, followed by nuclear energy generating around 11 TWh. On the other hand, fossil fuels also hold a significant portion with collective energy generated being roughly equal to the total low-carbon energy, out of which, the major contributors are gas and coal with close to 10 and 8 TWh respectively. Solar and wind make smaller but still important contributions, with wind outdoing solar generation by almost five times. Compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, Romania's total electricity generation might seem less. This could lead to potential issues such as limits to industrial expansion and economic growth, as electricity is a critical resource for almost all modern industries.


To enhance their low-carbon electricity generation, Romania can follow in the footsteps of other countries that have done well with their low-carbon energy technologies. For instance, looking at the United States and France, both have effectively harnessed nuclear power, generating approximately 775 and 320 TWh respectively. Similarly, wind energy implementation done by the People's Republic of China, the United States, and Germany, at 964, 425, and 140 TWh respectively, exemplifies an excellent roadmap. As they are already leveraging nuclear and wind power, Romania can aim at expanding these existing infrastructures, thereby facilitating a smooth transition, reduced time, and effective utilization of resources.


When tracing the history of Romania's low-carbon electricity, hydropower stands out as the pillar of its climate-friendly energy production. Starting from the late 1980s, there were notable increases in hydroelectricity, peaking at around 4 TWh in years like 1988, 1995, and 2010. However, it has been a seesaw throughout the years, with consecutive years like 1991 and 1992, 2000 and 2003, 2011 and 2012, followed by 2022 and 2023 showcasing increases and sharp falls respectively. Nonetheless, hydropower has always made a comeback, ensuring stability in the country's green energy map. Nuclear energy entered Romania's energy scene towards the end of the 20th century and has shown a promising albeit slow growth. From an increase of 4 TWh in 1997, nuclear energy has steadily sustained its shares throughout the years, although there's room for higher growth considering its potential in low-carbon electricity generation.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2001 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2002 to 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2009 to 2010 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2011 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2012 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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