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Electricity in Turkey in 2023

Global Ranking: #57
41.5% #78 Low-carbon electricity
45.46 % #49 Electrification
436.02 watts #89 Generation / person
422.08 gCO2eq/kWh #105 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, electricity consumption in Turkey primarily relies on fossil fuels, which account for more than half of the total electricity generation at approximately 57%. Coal and gas are the major contributors within the fossil fuel category, making up 36% and 21% respectively. On the other hand, low-carbon or clean energy sources contribute to around 41% of Turkey's electricity. Hydropower is the leading clean energy source, generating nearly 20% of the electricity. Wind energy follows with about 10%, while solar energy provides close to 6%. Geothermal energy and biofuels contribute smaller shares, with around 3% and 2.5%, respectively. Net imports play a minimal role in Turkey's electricity mix at just over 1%.


Turkey has significant potential to increase its low-carbon electricity generation by expanding existing wind energy capacities. Given the success of countries like Denmark, which generates more than half of its electricity from wind energy, Turkey can strive for similar achievements by investing in wind infrastructure and technology. Additionally, countries like Spain and Germany generate around a quarter to almost a third of their electricity from wind, presenting effective models for Turkey to emulate. Enhancing solar energy infrastructure also presents an opportunity, learning from countries like Chile and Greece, which generate about 17% of their electricity from solar power. While Turkey does not currently utilize nuclear energy, exploring this option can offer substantial benefits, as evidenced by countries like France and Slovakia, where nuclear power contributes over 60% of their electricity generation.


The evolution of low-carbon electricity in Turkey has seen significant changes over the decades. In the late 1980s, hydropower experienced fluctuation with notable increases in 1987 and 1988, followed by significant declines in 1989. Moving into the 1990s and early 2000s, hydropower continued to see instability with both sizable increases and notable declines; for example, 2002 and 2004 saw considerable boosts, while 2005 and 2007 had declines. The 2010s marked significant positive milestones for hydropower, especially in 2010 and 2015, but also faced notable drops such as in 2014 and 2020. More recently, 2021 witnessed substantial declines in hydropower generation but a promising increase in wind energy generation. The year 2022 saw a bounce back in hydropower, demonstrating the continued dynamic nature of Turkey's clean energy landscape.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1974 the data source is World Bank.
For the years 1975 to 1981 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1982 to 1983 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1990 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1991 to 2009 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2010 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2011 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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