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Electricity in Russia in 2023

Global Ranking: #32
36.0% #94 Low-carbon electricity
34.36 % #89 Electrification
926.34 watts #30 Generation / person
376.71 gCO2eq/kWh #91 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Russia's electricity generation reflects a significant reliance on fossil fuels, which account for about 64% of the total electricity mix. Within this segment, natural gas stands out as the primary source, contributing nearly 46% of the electricity. Coal further supplements the fossil bracket with around 17%. On the other hand, the low-carbon or clean energy sources make up roughly 36% of the total electricity production. Nuclear energy is a leading contributor within this category, supplying about 18%, while hydropower follows closely, providing 17%. This indicates that while clean energy sources have a substantial presence, fossil fuels still dominate the electricity sector in Russia.


To enhance low-carbon electricity generation, Russia could significantly expand its nuclear energy infrastructure. Countries like France, Slovakia, and Ukraine, where a majority of electricity is generated from nuclear power—65%, 62%, and 55% respectively—illustrate successful examples Russia can emulate. Additionally, Finland and Bulgaria, where nuclear accounts for 41% and 40% respectively, also highlight mid-sized nuclear programs that efficiently contribute to low-carbon goals. Beyond nuclear, wind energy also presents a viable path, as seen in Denmark and Uruguay, where wind accounts for more than 50% and 35% of the electricity mix. By leveraging its existing nuclear capabilities and exploring wind potential, Russia could considerably cut down its reliance on fossil fuels, thereby reducing its carbon footprint and addressing climate change.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Russia has seen notable shifts, especially in nuclear and hydropower production. During the late 1980s, nuclear power experienced significant growth with an increase of 19.5 TWh in 1987 and 10.1 TWh in 1988. However, the 1990s saw a decline, with drops in nuclear generation by 18 TWh in 1990 and 21.4 TWh in 1994. This period of fluctuation was marred by setbacks, yet it was followed by a resurgence: nuclear production rose by 16.6 TWh in 1999 and saw consistent incremental growth with increases of around 8-15 TWh annually during the early 2000s and mid-2010s. Hydropower also fluctuated, with notable declines in 1996 and early 2000s but rebounded in years like 2004, 2013, and 2020 with substantial increases. These historical trends underscore the resilience and potential for growth in Russia's low-carbon electricity sector.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2013 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2014 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2020 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2021 to 2022 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
For the year 2023 the data source is Ember.
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