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Electricity in France in 2023

Global Ranking: #9
93.7% #12 Low-carbon electricity
852.12 watts #31 Generation / person
48.19 gCO2eq/kWh #11 Carbon Intensity

Currently, France is leading the charge in low-carbon electricity production, with nearly 94% of its electric energy being sourced from clean methods. Nuclear power tops the list, providing a substantial 66% of the electricity, while hydropower contributes over 12%, and wind and solar power deliver almost 10% and close to 5% respectively. Fossil fuels, including gas, account for only a little over 6% of France's electricity generation, thus marking a significant achievement in the country's transition to green energy. Furthermore, the country has the distinction of being a notable net exporter of electricity, assisting neighbouring countries in reducing their carbon emissions as well.


To further increase low-carbon electricity generation, France could consider expanding existing nuclear plants. Given that nuclear technology already generates a substantial part of the country's electricity, this presents a viable avenue for augmenting France's green energy production. Extra capacity could also facilitate the electrification of sectors such as transport, heating, and industry, which will necessitate a considerable increase in electricity supply.


Looking back, the history of low-carbon electricity in France has been marked by significant milestones. Notably, the early 1980s witnessed a significant upswing in nuclear energy generation, with gains well into the late 1990s. Simultaneously, hydropower also made substantial contributions, peaking in 1977, before a decline in 1989. However, the turn of the millennium saw a temporary setback in nuclear electricity generation, beginning with a decline in 2009 and hastening in 2016 and 2020. Despite these downturns, the past two years have marked a return to rising nuclear output, albeit marred by a significant drop in 2022. Yet, with this year's rebound, it's clear that nuclear energy continues to play a vital role in France's low-carbon electricity strategy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1993 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1994 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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