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Electricity in France in 2023

Global Ranking: #9
93.7% #12 Low-carbon electricity
852.07 watts #31 Generation / person
48.19 gCO2eq/kWh #11 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, France has made significant strides towards a green energy future, with more than 90% of its electricity coming from low-carbon sources. With nuclear energy forming the lion's share at roughly two thirds of total electricity generation, it firmly underscores France's commitment to cleaner energy options. Additional contributions come from hydro and wind energy, each accounting for over 10% and close to 10% respectively. Solar power, though contributing less than 5%, together with the other sources, strongly fortifies France's electricity grid against the carbon intensity of fossil fuels, which currently stands at just over 6%. Furthermore, France has earned its stripes as a beneficial regional player, being a significant net exporter of electricity, thus aiding its neighbors in reducing their own carbon emissions.


Given the impressive strides already achieved with low-carbon electricity, expanding existing nuclear technologies can further bolster the nation's clean energy position. By enhancing nuclear capacities, more clean electricity can be produced without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. This could involve investing in modern reactors which can deliver higher efficiencies, bolstering safety norms or in research and development for next-generation nuclear technologies. This expansion can provide the additional clean electricity required to electrify other sectors such as transport, heating, and industry, thus aiding in France's quest for a low-carbon future.


The history of low-carbon electricity in France reveals a consistent push towards nuclear power. The early 1980s witnessed a surge in nuclear energy, with increased generation year after year. However, the road was not always smooth. The turn of the century was marred with periods of decline in nuclear generation. The most significant drop happened in 2022 with a decrease of 82.2 TWh. This has been somewhat offset by an increase in the following year but notable improvements would need to be made to avoid such fluctuations in the future. Despite these bumps, the nuclear energy industry in France proved its resilience, demonstrating a steadfast growth over the course of several decades. The longstanding commitment to this low-carbon energy source has formed a strong backbone for France's electricity needs and underscores the importance of continued investment in this sector.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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