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Electricity in Brazil in 2023

Global Ranking: #33
92.0% #14 Low-carbon electricity
51.59 % #33 Electrification
367.69 watts #97 Generation / person
86.64 gCO2eq/kWh #17 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Brazil recorded a significant consumption of low-carbon electricity totaling 635.29 TWh from sources such as hydropower, wind, biofuels, nuclear, and solar energy. More than half of the country's low-carbon power, approximately 422 TWh, was generated by hydropower. Combined, wind and biofuels contributed nearly to 151 TWh. Despite this, less than a tenth of energy was generated through fossil fuel sources, including gas, coal, and oil, with a total contribution of about 55 TWh. When compared globally to the average of 410 watts/person, the repercussion of Brazil's minimal fossil energy production is noticeable, marked by lower levels of pollution and significant reductions in contributed greenhouse gases.


Secondly, to increase low-carbon electricity generation, Brazil can look to countries like the People's Republic of China and the United States. These countries have significantly elevated their wind and nuclear energy outputs, generating 964 TWh and 775 TWh respectively. Brazil could potentially enhance its wind power sector, considering its current substantial production of roughly 94 TWh. In addition, the country might also consider investing in nuclear technology, as seen in nations such as the United States and France who generate sizeable amounts of their electricity from nuclear energy. Following international trends and strategies in low-carbon energy generation can provide Brazil with a roadmap for expanding its clean energy sector.


From a historical perspective, low-carbon electricity generation in Brazil has shown steady, yet oscillating growth predominantly from hydro energy. Throughout the 20th century, a significant increase in low-carbon energy production was observed, particularly in the 1980s. Notably, from 1979 to 1984, hydroelectricity production gradually rose by over 30 TWh. However, the early 21st century saw a decline in hydro generation, culminating in a significant drop of 36.5 TWh in 2001. This trend did not last long, as there was a subsequent increase in production within the following years. The last two decades, though marked by net growth in hydroelectric power, have experienced periods of decrease. As of 2023, Brazil has drawn attention to its increasing wind and solar power outputs, which can diversify its low-carbon electricity makeup moving forward.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1982 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1983 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2011 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2012 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2013 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is IEA.
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