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Electricity in Sweden in 2023

Global Ranking: #3
95.3% #11 Low-carbon electricity
81.20 % #3 Electrification
1692.65 watts #8 Generation / person
36.02 gCO2eq/kWh #10 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Sweden has made a remarkable achievement in harnessing electricity from low-carbon sources, generating close to 95% of its electricity this way. Breaking this down further, more than 42% is supplied by hydropower, followed by nuclear at 30%, and wind contributing over a fifth of the electricity production. This not only demonstrates Sweden’s commitment to green energy but also shows the nation's potential to become entirely dependent on low-carbon sources for electricity. Additionally, Sweden's surplus low-carbon electricity production allows it to be a significant net exporter, contributing to the lowering of emissions in neighboring countries.


Given that expanding low-carbon energy is key for Sweden to electrify other sectors such as transport, heating, and industry, it is sensible to scale up the existing nuclear and wind energy production. An increased electric power capacity will necessitate more nuclear reactors and wind farms. For nuclear, considering the current significant contribution to the grid, an expansion in this sector could provide a reliable base load power. Simultaneously, wind energy, which is already showing significant contribution, can be further harnessed by encouraging the construction of more wind farms, both onshore and offshore.


Looking back, the history of low-carbon electricity production in Sweden is quite dynamic. In the 1980s, there was a notable increase in nuclear power generation, however, the 1990s witnessed a considerable fluctuation in low-carbon energy generation, marked by variances in nuclear and hydropower output. The early 2000s were marked by a series of declines and rises in hydropower generation, underlining the vulnerability of this energy source to variations in climate conditions. In more recent years, there have been significant declines in nuclear power generation, notably in 2020, implying a need for consistent investment and policy support to ensure nuclear retains its role in Sweden's clean energy mix.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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