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Electricity in Portugal in 2023

Global Ranking: #24
65.5% #51 Low-carbon electricity
51.79 % #32 Electrification
641.47 watts #53 Generation / person
181.80 gCO2eq/kWh #37 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Portugal's electricity consumption shows a predominance of low-carbon energy sources, accounting for more than 65% of the total. Hydropower is the leading contributor within this category, supplying almost a third of the country's electricity. Wind energy trails behind, contributing over 22% to the mix. Notably, solar energy has a relatively smaller share at slightly above 6%, while biofuels constitute close to 5%. In comparison, fossil energy, specifically gas, has a noticeable albeit minor representation at around 17%, roughly equal to the country's net electricity imports.


To boost low-carbon electricity production, Portugal could prioritize expanding its existing wind power generation, which already accounts for a significant share of its energy mix. The nation could learn from the successes of Denmark, where wind energy contributes to a remarkable 59% of their electricity production. Moreover, as countries like France and Slovakia have demonstrated, with nuclear energy constituting 66% and 61% of their electricity respectively, introducing or expanding nuclear power could significantly augment Portugal's clean energy credentials.


Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity in Portugal, the role of hydropower has varied significantly over time. In the late 1970s, hydroelectric power generation increased markedly with an increase of 5.2 TWh in 1977. However, the end of the 1980s saw this trend reversed, with a decline of 6.4 TWh. Hydropower generation varied considerably through the 1990s and 2000s, exemplified by a loss of 5.4 TWh in 1999 followed by a rebound to the tune of 7.8 TWh in 2003. A similar recurring pattern was observed into the 2010s, with fluctuations ranging from a decrease of 9.3 TWh in 2017 to an increase of 10.8 TWh in 2023.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1988 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2018 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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