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Electricity in Poland in 2023

Global Ranking: #73
26.1% #115 Low-carbon electricity
43.96 % #58 Electrification
468.80 watts #83 Generation / person
575.91 gCO2eq/kWh #166 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, over 70% of Poland's electricity consumption comes from fossil fuels, with coal alone making up nearly 62%. Low-carbon energy, comprising primarily of wind and solar power, contributes around 26% with a near equal split between the two. It is worth noting that gas, another fossil fuel, stands at just under 8%. There is a nominal amount of electricity that is imported, hinting at a largely self-reliant energy sector.


Drawing wisdom from other countries, it is clear that expanding both nuclear and wind energy infrastructure could help Poland increase its low-carbon electricity generation. For example, a number of European countries, including Slovakia, France, and Finland, successfully generate over 40% of their electricity from nuclear energy. In terms of wind energy, Denmark generates almost 60% of their electricity using wind power which is more than double of what Poland currently achieves in this domain. By strengthening its commitment to clean, sustainable power sources, Poland can make significant strides towards energy transformation.


The trajectory of low-carbon electricity in Poland over the centuries is complex, with fluctuations in diverse energy sectors. The record indicates a meaningful growth in wind energy since 2011, despite a brief decline in 2018, the sector recovered and continued to grow. In contrast, biofuels have had a much more volatile journey, with a steady growth until 2016, interspersed with notable dips especially in 2016 and most recently in 2023. From 2021 onwards, solar energy saw an increasing curve, possibly signalling a shift in the energy mix. Finally, a noticeable change happened in 2023 when the hydroelectric power generation increased. These fluctuations and changes reveal a shift towards more diverse and potentially sustainable forms of energy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2013 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2014 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2015 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2016 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2022 the data sources are Energy Institute and ENTSOE (imports/exports).
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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