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Electricity in Belgium in 2023

Global Ranking: #15
71.2% #41 Low-carbon electricity
42.63 % #68 Electrification
801.39 watts #34 Generation / person
153.69 gCO2eq/kWh #33 Carbon Intensity

In Belgium, as of 2023, over 70% of electricity comes from low-carbon sources – a category that includes nuclear, wind, solar, biofuels, and hydropower. Of these, nuclear is the most significant, providing nearly 40% of the country's electricity. Wind and solar sources collectively contribute to about a quarter of the power production, with wind at around 17% and solar at nearly 9%. Fossil energy, specifically in the form of gas, accounts for almost 19% of the electricity. The remaining minor contributions come from biofuels, hydropower, and net imports.


As Belgium seeks to elevate its use of low-carbon electricity production, it could heed lessons from countries flourishing in this domain. For instance, France and Slovakia have placed nuclear energy at the forefront of their power generation, managing to produce 66% and 61% of their electricity from nuclear energy respectively. Belgium could consider expanding its nuclear facilities, leveraging the current substantial contribution of nearly 40%. Moreover, countries like Denmark, Uruguay, and Germany have harnessed their geographic advantage to generate 59%, 40%, and 30% of their power from wind. Seeing as wind energy already caters to 17% of Belgium's power needs, significant capacity expansion in this realm could push it to the forefront of low-carbon power production.


In the late 20th century, the history of low-carbon electricity in Belgium was heavily marked by nuclear power expansion. From the mid-1970s into the 1980s, we witness steady growth in nuclear electricity generation — a buildup characterized by yearly increases of up to 8.4 TWh. This trend saw some persistence into the 1990s, albeit with moderate advances. However, the early 21st century—specifically from 2012 to 2015—marked a worrying phase of substantial nuclear power decline, tumbling by as much as 8.9 TWh a year. Despite intermittent years of resurgence, the trend of decrease continued into 2023, pointing to a need for critical review of this crucial low-carbon energy strategy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1973 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2019 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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