In 2022, Slovakia's electricity consumption was primarily generated from low-carbon sources, making up a substantial 78.57% of the total. Nuclear energy was the leading low-carbon source, accounting for more than half of the nation's electricity at 56.89%. Hydropower and biofuels also contributed, delivering 13.09% and 6.12% respectively. Solar power accounted for a smaller 2.47%, but it can play a significant role in the future of Slovakia's low-carbon generation. On the other hand, fossil fuels, including gas (7.84%) and coal (5.51%), made up nearly one-fifth of Slovakia's electricity consumption. It is essential to mention that Slovakia relies on net imports for almost 4.37% of its electricity consumption, reaching a peak value of 34% during certain periods.
In order to enhance its green energy capacity, Slovakia could draw inspiration from other countries pioneering the use of low-carbon energy types. An immediate recommendation is to expand its existing nuclear power capacity, since it already forms the backbone of Slovakia's energy generation. Additionally, looking at the success of countries like Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom in harnessing wind energy, which contributes to about a quarter to more than half of their electricity generation, Slovakia could consider further developing its wind energy sector. Similarly, solar power has had significant success in countries like Chile and Yemen, contributing up to 17% of their electricity – Slovakia could take a cue from their strategies to boost its own solar energy.
Historically, Slovakia's low-carbon electricity has mostly been fuelled by nuclear energy and hydropower. The 1980s and 1990s saw an overall increase in nuclear generation, peaking at an additional 3.4 TWh in the year 2000. The early 2000s experienced a range of fluctuation in nuclear power with several gains and losses, the most significant being a 2.7 TWh decrease in 2007. In the case of hydropower, the biggest increase (1.5 TWh) occurred in 1993, followed by a bigger decrease of 1.8 TWh in 2003. There were mixed swings in this sector until 2018 when it recorded another decrease of 0.7 TWh. Despite the variability in these sources, their contribution has been instrumental in keeping Slovakia's electricity primarily low-carbon thus far.