Nearly half of Hungary's electricity consumption is derived from low-carbon sources. A significant portion, more than a third, is generated by nuclear power, contributing the most to the low-carbon mix. Fossil fuels make up just over a quarter of Hungary's consumption, with gas being the most prominent source in that group. Renewable sources such as solar, wind, and biofuels make up smaller portions, with solar power accounting for almost a tenth, wind having a smaller share of just over one percent, and biofuels coming in near five percent. Additionally, it's noteworthy to mention that just over a quarter of Hungary's electricity consumption is made up of net imports, with the peak value during the observed period reaching up to 60%.
Potential strategies for Hungary to increase its low-carbon electricity generation could involve expanding existing nuclear power plants. Countries like France, Ukraine, and Slovakia have significantly higher percentages of electricity generation through nuclear energy, demonstrating that this is a feasible strategy. Additionally, Hungary could invest more in wind energy, mirroring the efforts of countries like Denmark and Ireland, which generate more than half and a third of their electricity from wind, respectively. Developing solar energy further could also add value, especially considering its current share and potential for growth.
Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity in Hungary, the country has seen continuous growth since the 1980s, particularly in the nuclear sector. Starting from the mid-80s to the late 80s, there was a steady increase in nuclear power generation with around 2.3 TWh in 1983 and culminating in 3.6 TWh in 1987. The early 2000s saw a slight dip in nuclear power generation but quickly recovered with an increase in 2004. Biofuels also began contributing to the low-carbon mix around this time. Despite the fluctuations in nuclear power generation, a steady increase was noticed overall, with solar power making a more notable contribution to the mix since 2019. While some variation occurs, the trend toward low-carbon electricity has been steadily upward in Hungary, indicating a continued transition towards cleaner, more sustainable energy sources is possible.