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Electricity in Latvia in 2023

Global Ranking: #39
68.1% #43 Low-carbon electricity
38.27 % #85 Electrification
428.25 watts #91 Generation / person
184.80 gCO2eq/kWh #38 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Latvia's electricity consumption reflects a strong commitment to low-carbon sources, with more than two-thirds (68%) coming from clean energy. Hydropower leads the way, providing over half (54%) of the total electricity, while biofuels and wind energy contribute almost 10% and about 4%, respectively. Conversely, fossil fuels account for roughly 21% of the total electricity, all of which comes from gas. Additionally, Latvia relies on net imports for about 11% of its electricity needs. This blend highlights the nation's solid foundation in low-carbon electricity generation while spotlighting areas where improvements can still be made to reduce fossil fuel dependence.


Latvia can further increase its low-carbon electricity generation by expanding its nuclear and wind energy capabilities. Looking at similar countries, Slovakia and Ukraine showcase impressive contributions from nuclear energy, with around 62% and 55%, respectively, derived from this source. Denmark, on the other hand, demonstrates significant success with wind energy, generating over half (53%) of its electricity from wind. Latvia can learn from these examples by investing in nuclear energy infrastructure and capitalizing on the windy Baltic Sea region to increase wind energy output. Additionally, partnerships and shared expertise with these countries could facilitate smoother implementations and optimizations in these technologies.


Historically, Latvia's hydropower generation has experienced fluctuations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, for instance, there were significant swings, with notable increases in 1987 (0.7 TWh) and 1989 (0.6 TWh), offset by declines such as in 1988 (-0.7 TWh) and 1991 (-1.2 TWh). The late 1990s witnessed another wave of changes, with substantial rises in 1997 (1.1 TWh) and 1998 (1.4 TWh) followed by a decline in 1999 (-1.6 TWh). More recently, Latvia saw growth in hydropower in 2017 (1.9 TWh) and 2023 (1 TWh), indicating a resurgence in this clean energy source. These historical trends underscore the importance of a diversified approach to low-carbon electricity generation, emphasizing the need to balance and stabilize contributions from various sources like nuclear, wind, and solar alongside hydropower.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 2003 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2004 to 2005 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2006 to 2013 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2014 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2015 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2016 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2017 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2018 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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