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Electricity in Spain in 2023

Global Ranking: #20
70.5% #40 Low-carbon electricity
46.89 % #45 Electrification
677.96 watts #53 Generation / person
171.25 gCO2eq/kWh #36 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Spain achieved significant advancements in its electricity consumption profile, with more than two-thirds of its electricity coming from low-carbon sources. Wind energy played a crucial role, contributing nearly a quarter of the total electricity. Nuclear energy also had a substantial share, making up about a fifth of the total. Solar power followed closely, providing around 17%, while hydropower contributed just over 9%. Fossil fuels accounted for close to 27% of electricity consumption, with gas representing almost 22%, and oil and coal making much smaller contributions of about 4% and 2%, respectively.


To further increase Spain's low-carbon electricity generation, it would be prudent to expand on the existing nuclear, wind, and solar infrastructures, given their substantial current contributions. By investing in these clean energy technologies, Spain can draw inspiration from countries like France and Slovakia, where nuclear power dominates electricity production, making up about 65% and 62% of their electricity, respectively. Similarly, Denmark's success with wind energy, which constitutes 53% of its electricity, provides a strong model for Spain to follow. By replicating these strategies, Spain can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels, thereby combating climate change and reducing air pollution.


The history of Spain's low-carbon electricity reveals a series of fluctuations, particularly with hydropower. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Spain experienced significant ups and downs in hydropower contributions, such as in 1977 with an 18.7 TWh increase, and a substantial decrease in 1980 of 16.8 TWh. The introduction of nuclear energy in 1984 with an increase of 12.4 TWh marked a pivotal change. The 2000s and 2010s continued to see variable changes in hydropower, with notable increases in 2010 and 2013 of around 16 TWh each, and sizeable declines in other years, such as 2017 with a drop of 18.8 TWh. Recently, a remarkable rise has been seen in solar power, with 2023 witnessing an increase of 11.1 TWh. These trends underscore the need for sustained investment and reliability in stable low-carbon sources like nuclear, wind, and solar.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1971 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1991 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1992 to 1996 the data source is IEA.
For the year 1997 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1998 to 2003 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2004 to 2015 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2016 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data sources are Energy Institute and ENTSOE (imports/exports).
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