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Electricity in Croatia in 2022

Global Ranking: #39
47.1% #69 Low-carbon electricity
533.36 watts #72 Generation / person
293.16 gCO2eq/kWh #62 Carbon Intensity
Up to 100% Electricity imports

As of 2022, nearly half of Croatia's electricity consumption comes from low-carbon sources, marked by a significant contribution from hydropower accounting for almost 30%. Fossil energy sources make a considerable contribution too, totaling just over a quarter with gas constituting close to 18% alone. Meanwhile, the contribution of wind energy to the mix is approximately 12%. Other sources including biofuels, oil, solar and geothermal energy constitute just over 8%, hinting at an opportunity for further diversification. Strikingly, despite the country’s efforts towards sustainable sources, net imports still make up over a quarter of electricity consumption.


In terms of increasing low-carbon electricity generation, Croatia could consider expanding its existing wind energy infrastructure. The country's topography and coastal location provide ideal conditions for harnessing wind energy. Moreover, taking cues from successful countries can prove beneficial. For instance, Denmark, a nation with similar geographic characteristics, derives over half of its electricity from wind energy. Also, considering the fact that several European nations, like France, Ukraine and Slovakia, generate more than half of their electricity from nuclear power, Croatia could explore this low-carbon avenue to bolster its energy production and reduce dependence on imports.


Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity generation in Croatia, it becomes evident that hydropower has been the nation's dominant green energy source for decades. The sector has seen fluctuations over the years, with significant increments in the early-to-mid 90s, and in the first decade of the 21st century. However, in more recent years, there have been a mix of gains and losses, signaling some instability in hydroelectric generation. Despite years of negative returns, including a considerable decline of -4.1 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 2011, the sector has demonstrated resilience, bouncing back with increased generation in subsequent years. Key takeaways from this hindsight analysis are that while hydropower will likely remain a significant part of Croatia's energy mix, diversifying its low-carbon energy sources could provide greater stability and self-reliance in the long run.

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 2000 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2001 to 2003 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2004 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2005 to 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2017 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.