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Electricity in Croatia in 2023

Global Ranking: #34
61.9% #53 Low-carbon electricity
43.24 % #63 Electrification
530.27 watts #72 Generation / person
229.24 gCO2eq/kWh #49 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Croatia's electricity consumption reveals a promising tilt towards clean energy, with low-carbon sources accounting for almost two-thirds of the total electricity generated. Hydropower is the dominant low-carbon source, supplying just over 40% of the electricity. Wind energy contributes around 13%, and biofuels and solar energy add about 6% and 1%, respectively. However, fossil fuels still play a significant role, with almost 28% of electricity generated from these sources; natural gas stands out as the primary fossil fuel at about 20%, followed by coal at around 7%. Additionally, Croatia relies on net imports for somewhat more than a tenth of its electricity needs.


To boost its low-carbon electricity generation, Croatia could expand its wind energy infrastructure, leveraging its current success in this domain. Learning from countries with efficient low-carbon practices can also be beneficial. Denmark, for instance, harnesses over 50% of its electricity from wind, a figure Croatia could aim to approach. Furthermore, examining Slovakia and France's successful use of nuclear energy—contributing around 62% and 65% of their electricity, respectively—could provide valuable insights. Slovenia, a neighboring country, also benefits significantly from nuclear energy at about 37%, highlighting the regional feasibility of this clean technology. Emulating these countries could support Croatia in reducing its reliance on fossil fuels and combating climate change.


The historical trends of low-carbon electricity in Croatia show fluctuating contributions from hydropower. In the early 1990s, hydro generation varied significantly, with increases and declines often exceeding 1 TWh annually. In the early 2000s, hydropower continued to see similar volatility but notably increased by 2.3 TWh in 2004, and again by 3.6 TWh in 2013. The late 2010s were marked by further variability, with significant increases in 2018 and 2023 of around 2.5 TWh and 2.4 TWh, respectively. Nonetheless, the intermittent yet substantial contribution of hydropower underscores its importance in Croatia's low-carbon energy mix and signals the potential benefits of stabilizing and expanding other clean energy sources like wind and nuclear.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 2000 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2001 to 2003 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2004 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2005 to 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2017 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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