In 2023, the largest proportion, more than half, of Croatia's electricity came from low-carbon sources, amounting to nearly 62%. The principal contributor in this respect was hydropower, providing close to 42% of the total electricity. On the other hand, fossil fuels, led by gas at close to 19%, constituted just over a quarter of Croatia's electricity supply. Other significant types of low-carbon electricity included wind power, accounting for nearly 14% of the total electricity, and biofuels, making up just under 4%. Notably, close to none of the electricity originated from unspecified renewables. The country also relied on net imports for over 12% of its electricity.
To enhance its low-carbon electricity production, Croatia can expand its existing wind power capabilities. Given that wind energy constitutes nearly 14% of Croatia's electricity, expanding this established sector could significantly boost low-carbon electricity generation. Looking at international examples, countries like Denmark and Germany have successfully harnessed wind power, generating 59% and 30% of their electricity from it, respectively. Expanding wind power in Croatia could achieve similar success. Moreover, nuclear energy, a low-carbon source, has been extremely effective in countries such as France and Slovakia, where it forms the majority of their electricity. Croatia can examine these instances to understand the potential benefits of nuclear power for its own electricity generation.
Croatia's history of low-carbon electricity production revolves strongly around hydropower. There have been significant fluctuations in this area over time. The early 1990s saw an increase in hydropower generation, peaking in 1991 with a 1.6 TWh surge. However, this was followed by a decrease of 1.2 TWh in 1992. Fluctuations continued throughout the late 90s and the first decade of the 2000s, with increases and decreases seen year after year. The biggest drop was in 2011, with a fall of 4.1 TWh. More recently, from 2017 to 2023, the sector saw a more balanced period of minor ups and downs. From this historical trend, it is clear that while hydropower plays a large role in Croatia's electricity production, its output varies significantly from year to year.