In 2022, Czechia's electricity consumption was almost equally divided between low-carbon and fossil fuel energy sources. Fossil fuels, primarily coal, made up slightly more than half of the energy mix with 51.25%, with coal alone accounting for about 43%. Low-carbon sources weren't far behind, accounting for almost half of the total consumption at 48.75%. This low-carbon energy came from a range of sources, with nuclear making a hefty contribution of roughly 36%, followed by a smaller percentage of biofuels, solar, hydropower, and wind energy. Given this balance, Czechia is a net exporter of electricity, able to produce more than it requires for domestic use.
Czechia can further decrease its reliance on fossil fuels by boosting its already significant use of low-carbon electricity. Building upon their substantial nuclear base is a practical step, considering countries like France and Slovakia, where nuclear energy makes up 61% and 57% of their electricity generation respectively. Additionally, Czechia could also delve into expanding their current wind energy structures, deriving inspiration from countries like Denmark and Ireland, from which 52% and 33% of their electricity respectively is generated from wind. By learning from these countries and leveraging the potential of their existing nuclear and wind infrastructures, Czechia could increase its overall low-carbon electricity generation.
The journey of low-carbon electricity evolution in Czechia began strongly in the mid 1980s with a noticeable increase in nuclear power. From 1986 to 1988, nuclear power saw successive growth, peaking at around 4.6 TWh in 1987. A minor slump was encountered in 1995, but the next decade witnessed renewed vigor in nuclear generation with a major surge in 2003 with an increase of 7.1 TWh. The turn of the millennium also saw hydro energy experiencing fluctuations, mostly echoing declines though small recovery was visible in 2004 and 2013. In the recent decade, apart from a short downturn between 2015 and 2016, nuclear energy’s contribution has generally improved, with 2017 witnessing a substantial increase of 4.2 TWh, signifying the ongoing commitment to low-carbon energy generation.