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Electricity in Egypt in 2023

Global Ranking: #148
11.9% #151 Low-carbon electricity
209.95 watts #129 Generation / person
441.78 gCO2eq/kWh #114 Carbon Intensity

Based on our own forecast model, which utilizes actual data for the first five months of 2023 and projected data for the remaining three months, electricity consumption in Egypt predominantly relies on fossil fuels. Fossil energy, primarily gas, contributes around 177 TWh, with gas alone accounting for 168 TWh. In contrast, low-carbon sources like hydropower, wind, and solar only make up approximately 24 TWh. Hydropower leads this group with 14 TWh, followed by wind at about 5 TWh, and solar close to 5 TWh as well. Comparatively, Egypt's per capita electricity generation is significantly lower than the global average of 432 watts per person, which could hinder economic development and impact living standards due to restricted energy availability.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation in Egypt, there are several successful models Egypt can learn from. China's vast expansion of wind and solar power, generating 886 TWh and 584 TWh respectively, highlights the potential for scaling up these technologies. Similarly, the United States has significantly benefited from nuclear power, generating 775 TWh, which suggests that a similar nuclear program could be advantageous for Egypt. Additionally, countries like India, which generated 113 TWh from solar and 82 TWh from wind, demonstrate that emerging economies can also achieve substantial low-carbon electricity outputs. By diversifying into both nuclear and green energy sources such as wind and solar, Egypt could rapidly improve its low-carbon electricity generation profile, reducing dependency on fossil fuels.


Egypt's history with low-carbon electricity generation shows varying trends across different decades. In the late 1980s and through the 1990s, hydropower saw modest gains, with particularly notable increases in years like 1999 (1.3 TWh) and subsequent smaller gains and losses. However, significant fluctuations were also observed, such as declines in 2003 (-1.1 TWh) and around 2009 and 2010. Wind energy began to see increases in more recent years, with substantial gains in 2019 (2 TWh) and continued growth. Solar energy has also emerged as a significant contributor since 2019, particularly with a large increase in 2020 (3 TWh). This recent growth in wind and solar suggests a positive trend toward diversifying Egypt’s low-carbon electricity generation sources.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1985 to 1999 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 2000 to 2009 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2010 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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