Based on current data for Cyprus in 2022, fossil fuels are significantly dominating the electricity market, representing over 80% of the total production. In contrast, the contribution of low-carbon sources to the energy mix is about 17%, a figure that clearly highlights the need for sustainable change. Solar energy, which is the most used source of clean energy, accounting for almost 12% of the total electricity production in the country. Wind energy contributes to a little over 4%, while the share of biofuels in electricity production remains very low, at just above 1%. Furthermore, it should be noted that Cyprus exclusively relies on its domestic sources of energy for electricity production, with no imports or exports from or to other countries.
Looking at the possibilities for increasing low-carbon electricity generation in Cyprus, there is significant potential for expanding the current solar power generation. Given the island's sunny climate, this would be a logical and sustainable choice. Moreover, Cyprus can learn from other countries, like Denmark and Ireland, which had great success in harnessing wind power for electricity. Denmark, for instance, generates more than half of its electricity from wind energy, while Ireland's wind power amounts to a third of their total electricity production. Cyprus' geographical characteristics would similarly support an increased focus on these two low-carbon energy types.
The history of low-carbon electricity in Cyprus has been marked by a gradual incorporation of clean energy sources into the energy mix since the turn of the century. Prior to 2010, biofuels were the only form of low-carbon energy in use, but their contribution to total electricity was negligible. The year 2010 marked the inclusion of wind energy, which, however, only saw a minor increase in 2011 and 2012 before plateauing again. Solar energy entered the Cypriot electricity landscape in 2013, and after an initial period of stagnation, its generation has been steadily increasing since 2015. The recent years, especially 2021 and 2022, have seen the most significant increase in solar electricity production, signaling a shift towards an increased appreciation of low-carbon energy sources in Cyprus.