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Electricity in Luxembourg in 2023

Global Ranking: #58
22.6% #123 Low-carbon electricity
842.15 watts #32 Generation / person
343.79 gCO2eq/kWh #77 Carbon Intensity

Luxembourg's electricity consumption in 2023 was highly dependent on net imports, which accounted for more than three-quarters of their total consumption. As for local generation, almost a quarter came from low-carbon energy sources. Within this category, wind power was the most significant contributor with slightly over 10%. Solar and biofuel energy contributed almost equally with about 5% each. Despite constituting a smaller fraction, the fossil category was solely represented by gas, running close to 2% of total electricity consumption. Among low-carbon sources, hydropower contributed minimally, nearly 2%.


Looking forward, Luxembourg has the opportunity to build on its existing low-carbon infrastructure to boost its clean energy output. Given that wind energy constitutes their largest local, low-carbon energy source, they could expand their wind farms. Inspiration can be taken from countries like Denmark or Ireland, where wind power contributes to 59% and 35% of the power mix respectively. Considering Luxembourg's lack of nuclear power, they could explore this option by examining the approaches of countries like France or Slovakia, where nuclear energy comprises over 60% of their electricity generation. For sunlight-abundant periods, Luxembourg could increase their solar capacity, possibly taking cues from sunny nations like Greece and Australia, where solar power supplies 19% and 18% of their electricity needs respectively.


In terms of the historical perspective, Luxembourg's low-carbon electricity generation was dominated by hydropower from the mid-1980s until the 21st century. Notable progress was seen in the early 1990s with an increase in hydroelectric power, but the growth fluctuated frequently over the years with minor declines and raises. However, in recent years, there has been a clear shift towards other types of low-carbon energy, with wind power and biofuels making their entry in the late 2010s. The last decade has seen the rise of wind power, increasing each year, whereas biofuels have witnessed a minor decrease in 2023. This shift symbolizes Luxembourg's evolving attitude towards a variety of low carbon power sources, and highlights the potential for diversity in the nation's energy strategy moving forward.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1977 to 1980 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1981 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2002 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2003 to 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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