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Electricity in Luxembourg in 2023

Global Ranking: #113
16.6% #137 Low-carbon electricity
27.55 % #105 Electrification
1130.25 watts #20 Generation / person
365.27 gCO2eq/kWh #90 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, electricity consumption in Luxembourg relies predominantly on net imports, which account for more than 80% of its total electricity needs. Among the locally generated electricity, over 16% comes from low-carbon sources, such as wind, solar, biofuels, and hydropower. Wind contributes almost 8%, making it the largest share among low-carbon sources, followed by solar at around 4%, biofuels at slightly over 3%, and hydropower at just over 1%. Meanwhile, fossil fuel-generated electricity is minimal, at slightly above 1%, making Luxembourg's electricity generation very clean but highly dependent on imports.


To boost local low-carbon electricity generation, Luxembourg can look at successful examples worldwide. For instance, France and Slovakia achieve more than 60% of their electricity generation from nuclear energy, showcasing the potential of nuclear power to significantly reduce dependence on imports. Additionally, Denmark and Germany have more than half and almost a third of their electricity coming from wind, respectively, highlighting the feasibility of scaling up wind power. By investing in nuclear infrastructure and expanding wind energy capacity, Luxembourg can reduce its reliance on imports and move towards a more self-sufficient, clean energy portfolio.


The history of low-carbon electricity generation in Luxembourg shows a gradual and intermittent growth in various sources. In the 1990s, hydropower saw several fluctuations, with notable increases in 1990, 1994, and 1995, and declines in other years. During the early 2000s, hydropower experienced some significant changes, particularly a decrease in 2000 and 2009, followed by increases in 2010 and 2012. More recently, starting from 2017, there has been modest growth in wind energy, with incremental increases in wind and biofuels, and the introduction of solar energy in 2022. Luxembourg's consistent, albeit modest, addition of new low-carbon capacities indicates a continuing commitment to clean electricity sources.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1977 to 1980 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1981 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2002 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2003 to 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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