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Electricity in Estonia in 2023

Global Ranking: #111
29.2% #111 Low-carbon electricity
43.75 % #57 Electrification
844.54 watts #35 Generation / person
419.05 gCO2eq/kWh #104 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Estonia's electricity consumption was still predominantly reliant on fossil fuels, which accounted for almost 37% of the total. Close behind, net imports contributed about 34% of the overall consumption. Clean energy sources, which include biofuels, solar, and wind, collectively made up nearly 30% of the electricity mix. Among the clean energy sources, biofuels held the largest share at slightly over 13%, while solar and wind accounted for about 8% and 8% respectively. Clearly, Estonia still has significant room for improvement in increasing its clean electricity generation, crucial for reducing the adverse impacts of climate change and air pollution associated with fossil fuel use.


To enhance low-carbon electricity generation, Estonia can look to successful examples from countries with a high share of clean energy. For instance, France and Slovakia have led the way with nuclear power providing 65% and 62% of their electricity needs, respectively. Estonia, with its similar size and economic context to Slovakia, could significantly benefit from investing in nuclear energy. Additionally, Denmark has successfully harnessed wind power to supply 53% of its electricity. Estonia could learn from Denmark’s policies and technologies to scale up wind energy production. These examples demonstrate that a combination of nuclear and wind power could be highly effective strategies for Estonia to boost its clean electricity generation and reduce reliance on imports and fossil fuels.


Looking back at the history of low-carbon electricity in Estonia, several key trends emerge. In the years immediately following 2009, biofuels experienced modest growth, with the largest increases in 2010 (0.4 TWh) and 2012 (0.2 TWh). Wind energy started to see notable advancements around 2015, albeit with some fluctuations, such as a decrease in 2016 and a subsequent increase in 2017 and 2020. Solar energy is relatively new in this mix but showed significant growth by adding 0.2 TWh in 2020 and a further 0.3 TWh in 2022. Despite some recent declines in biofuels in 2022 and 2023, solar and wind have shown consistent, albeit modest, increases, signifying a positive trend towards more sustainable electricity generation.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2018 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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