LowCarbonPower logo
Instagram Facebook X (Twitter)

Electricity in Estonia in 2023

Global Ranking: #60
26.9% #111 Low-carbon electricity
682.97 watts #44 Generation / person
411.83 gCO2eq/kWh #96 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Estonia's electricity consumption stemmed predominantly from net imports, accounting for over 40% of the country's total consumption. Beyond imports, a majority of the country's electricity came from fossil fuel and oil use, constituting around 30% and a quarter of total consumption respectively. On the other hand, low-carbon energy, including wind, solar, and biofuels, made up less than a third of Estonia's total electricity generation. Wind power led this category at slightly over 10%, followed closely by solar at nearly 9%, and biofuels at just under 8%.


To elevate its low-carbon electricity generation, Estonia would benefit from expanding its existing wind energy technologies, given that wind is already a significant low-carbon energy source for the country. Looking at other nations, Denmark, with a similar geographical profile to Estonia, generates almost 60% of its electricity through wind power. Similarly, Ireland, which also shares coastal wind resources, derives 34% of its electricity from wind. Estonia could aim to emulate these countries' strategies, harnessing wind technologies to increase its clean electricity output significantly.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Estonia paints a picture of slow but steady progress. The production from biofuels saw an increment in the early part of 2000s, from a rise of 0.3 TWh in 2009 to 0.6 TWh in 2020. However, it suffered a considerable setback, plummeting by 1.9 TWh in 2023. The story for wind energy is more optimistic, with a 0.1 TWh increase in 2015 and maintained its rise through till 2023. Apart from wind and biofuels, solar energy entered the mix around 2020 with a consistent output increase of 0.2 TWh each year through 2023, indicating a growing role in Estonia’s efforts to embrace low-carbon electricity generation.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2018 the data sources are IEA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
Instagram Facebook X (Twitter)