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Electricity in Estonia in 2022

Global Ranking: #28
39.5% #82 Low-carbon electricity
798.15 watts #39 Generation / person
436.72 gCO2eq/kWh #106 Carbon Intensity
Up to 75% Electricity imports

As of 2022, energy consumption in Estonia is predominantly dependent on fossil fuels, which account for more than half of its energy production, specifically 50.27%. The country's energy generation from low-carbon sources is quite significant, accounting for close to 40% of the total, but this is still considerably less than that of fossil fuels. Within this low-carbon category, biofuels constitute the majority with more than a quarter of total energy generation, followed by wind and solar, which contribute approximately 7% and 6% respectively. Other low-carbon energy sources, such as hydropower and gas, account for much smaller shares of consumption, close to none. It is worth noting that nearly 10.23% of Estonia's electricity consumption is made up of net imports, and at peak times, the country has relied on imports for as much as 75% of its electricity.


Estonia could take a cue from other countries that have succeeded in leveraging low-carbon energy sources. For instance, countries like France, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Belgium derive more than a third of their electricity from nuclear energy, with France leading the pack at 61%. Notably, these countries are geographically and climatically comparable to Estonia, indicating that nuclear could be a viable option for Estonia's energy matrix. Similarly, the utilization of wind energy has shown promising results in Denmark and Ireland, which generate over half and a third of their electricity from wind respectively. Thus, Estonia could consider accelerating its adoption of nuclear and wind energy sources to increase its share of low-carbon electricity generation.


The historical development of low-carbon electricity in Estonia has primarily revolved around biofuels. Significant growth was observed in biofuels generation from 2009, which persisted until 2010, and to a lesser extent up to 2012. There was a minor setback in 2013 due to a decrease in biofuel electricity production. However, this was partly offset by an increase in wind energy that same year. The growth of biofuels gradually continued up to 2022, with a spike in 2020. This remarkable increase in 2020 could be attributed not only to biofuels but also to the rise in electricity generated from solar and wind energy. The growth of wind energy, however, has been inconsistent, for instance experiencing a decrease in 2016 and 2021. Solar energy, on the other hand, has shown a steady growth trend since its introduction in 2020, promising a more sustainable future for Estonia.

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.