Based upon the data presented, the current consumption of electricity in Mauritius is predominantly fuelled by fossil energy, with a total output of 2.27 TWh in 2021. This is substantially less than the global average, which is estimated at 410 watts per person. As such, the effect of Mauritius's current electricity consumption on the environment is potentially damaging, as the nation's reliance on fossil fuels contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, these low levels of electricity generation could also have a detrimental impact on economic activities and development due to potential deficiencies in supply.
To shift towards cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, Mauritius could take cues from similar island nations or nations with similar geographic features that have successfully augmented their use of low-carbon energy sources. For instance, Japan and Spain, nations with year-round sunlight like Mauritius, have been successful in harnessing solar energy, with electricity generation of around 100 TWh and 40 TWh respectively. Mauritius could therefore invest in solar infrastructure to take advantage of its tropical climate. Countries like Brazil and India are also noteworthy, as they are utilizing both wind and solar energy, with Brazil generating 94 TWh from wind and 50 TWh from solar and India producing 119 TWh from solar and 91 TWh from wind. Despite their relatively small size compared to these nations, Mauritius could study and adapt their strategies to diversify their energy sources and enhance their sustainability.
In terms of low-carbon electricity history in Mauritius, data indicates that the journey began in the early 1980s with hydroelectric power, which fluctuated slightly in usage over the years, with minor increases and decreases throughout the years. Biofuels also came into the picture in the 1990s with a similar trend of minor fluctuations in generation. Interestingly, the biofuels' usage seemed to alternate with hydroelectric power, perhaps indicating a dependency between the two. Recent information from the last decade suggests a positive shift towards solar power with an increase noted in 2019. This shift indicates a potentially promising future for solar power generation in Mauritius in the context of expanding low-carbon electricity production. However, it's pivotal to ensure a consistent and substantial growth trajectory for a notable impact.