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Electricity in Madagascar in 2021

Global Ranking: #134
34.4% #99 Low-carbon electricity
8.25 watts #202 Generation / person
458.35 gCO2eq/kWh #114 Carbon Intensity
None Electricity imports

Madagascar's current electricity consumption stands significantly below the global average of 412 watts/person, with a total of 8.25 watts/person for the year 2021. The majority of this limited consumption is accounted for by fossil energy at 5.41 watts per person, while low-carbon energy contributes a smaller share at 2.84 watts per person. Of the low-carbon share, almost all is generated by hydropower at 2.76 watts per person, while solar energy constitutes only 0.08 watts per person. Coal energy, a type of fossil fuel, accounts for 1.03 watts per person. The nation's electricity generation falls alarmingly short of global standards, possibly leading to infrastructural challenges and hindering its economic development. Madagascar neither imports nor exports electricity, exacerbating its energy constraints.


To boost its low-carbon electricity generation, Madagascar could take cues from countries successful in harnessing clean energy sources. For instance, Uruguay, with its similar sunny climate, generates 160 watts/person from wind energy, demonstrating the potential of embracing wind power. Australia’s 147 watts/person from solar might also serve as an inspiration for Madagascar, considering its abundant solar potential. Furthermore, considering the low-carbon contributions of nuclear energy in countries like Sweden and France, Madagascar could feasibly explore the development of nuclear power, as long as safety and waste disposal concerns are adequately addressed.


Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity in Madagascar, the country has predominantly relied on hydropower since the mid-1990s. The initial years saw a modest but steady increase in hydropower generation, with a slight growth of 0.1 Terawatt-hours (TWh) every few years between 1995 and 2003. This trend continued into the 2010s despite some negligible fluctuations. However, it is noticeable that there was a slight dip in hydropower generation in the years 2016 and 2017. Fortunately, there was a surge in 2018, when hydropower generation increased by 0.2 TWh. The subsequent years saw a decrease, but the generation numbers stabilized in 2021. The historical data suggests a consistent, albeit slow, improvement in Madagascar's ability to harness hydropower over time. It also underscores the need for the country to diversify its low-carbon energy mix to increase its overall electricity generation.

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.