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Electricity in Madagascar in 2022

Global Ranking: #104
36.9% #89 Low-carbon electricity
23.45 % #112 Electrification
9.32 watts #203 Generation / person
436.19 gCO2eq/kWh #112 Carbon Intensity

As of 2022, Madagascar's electricity consumption remains dominated by fossil fuels, generating approximately 1.49 TWh. However, the contribution from low-carbon or clean energy sources such as hydro-electric power is notably smaller. When we look at the global average for electricity consumption, which is about 425 watts per person, Madagascar is lagging significantly. The low levels of electricity generation not only hinder economic development but also limit access to modern amenities and exacerbate issues related to poverty and health. The reliance on fossil fuels further contributes to climate change and air pollution, which impacts the environment and the well-being of the population.


To increase the generation of low-carbon electricity, Madagascar can learn from countries that have successfully integrated various clean energy types into their electricity mix. For instance, China has made substantial advancements with wind energy generating 886 TWh and solar energy at 584 TWh. Similarly, Brazil's wind energy sector generates 96 TWh, showing how a country with similar geographical challenges has harnessed its natural resources effectively. By investing in solar and wind technologies, Madagascar can emulate these examples, and coupling it with nuclear energy, akin to France's 336 TWh, can provide a steady, reliable source of power. Leveraging mixed clean energy sources can help Madagascar reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and promote sustainable development.


Historically, Madagascar's efforts in low-carbon electricity have been concentrated on hydropower. Initial moderate increases were seen in the early 1980s and mid-1990s with increments by 0.1 TWh. The 2000s showed a sporadic pattern with some fluctuating growth and declines: for instance, there were no changes in 2000 and 2004 followed by increments of 0.1 TWh in 2003 and 2007. Recent years have seen somewhat more volatility, particularly with declines such as in 2016, 2017, 2019, and 2020 by 0.1 TWh. Despite some years with positive changes, such as 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2018, the overall progress has been inconsistent. Strengthening the focus on reliable sources like hydropower, combined with new investments in solar, wind, and nuclear energy, could offer a more stable and sustainable electricity supply for Madagascar in the future.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1999 the data source is EIA.
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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