In 2021, total electricity consumption per person in Angola stood at about 54 watts. This figure is significantly lower compared to the global average of 412 watts per person, indicating that a larger part of the population might be lacking stable access to electricity. Of this total, a substantial fraction, specifically around 72%, was sourced from low-carbon energy — with hydropower accounting for almost the entirety. The remaining 28% were derived from fossil sources with gas topping the list. Worth noting is that the fractions for both solar and biofuels were minuscule, adding up to about 2% of the total electricity use. Despite these low levels, Angola neither imports nor exports electricity, meaning any changes in the sector's condition will be mostly dependent on domestic efforts.
Due to its rich hydro resources, Angola has been traditionally reliant on hydropower for much of its electricity. To boost the current low levels of electricity generation and increase the share of low-carbon sources, learning from success stories of other nations could be useful. For instance, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway stand out for their extensive use of wind energy, although the implementation of such technologies would require assessment of Angola's wind potential. Nuclear energy, with its high energy yield per unit, could also be explored given that leading countries like France, Sweden, and South Korea have made substantial strides in this field. Countries like Australia or Chile, also being closer to the equator like Angola, demonstrate success with solar power and might offer insights for this energy's expansion in Angola.
Looking back, Angola's low-carbon electricity production, mainly from hydropower, has shown a general upward trend since the turn of the 21st century. The changes year-on-year, albeit rather small, have mostly been positive especially from 2004 through 2019. Over this period, there were three significant instances where the hydropower generation dropped compared to the previous year, notably in 2007, 2012 and, more recently, in 2021. Outside of hydropower, biofuels witnessed a substantial increase in 2014, turning in 1.1 TWh more than the previous year, although this impressive growth was short-lived given the sharp contraction reported in 2017. These ups and downs highlight the sector's potential for improvement, especially given the global shift towards more sustainable energy sources.