In 2021, low-carbon energy, largely comprised of hydropower, made up a significant portion of Angola's electricity generation at approximately 11.8 terawatt-hours (TWh), compared to fossil energy which contributed around 4.63 TWh. Among the fossil fuels, gas was the primary source, contributing around 3.89 TWh. When compared to the global average of approximately 410 watts per person, it is clear that Angola's electricity generation is significantly lower. This low level of electricity generation can result in an array of challenges, including constraints on economic development, hampering the functioning of vital services like healthcare and education, and limiting technological advancements.
To increase electricity generation using low-carbon sources, Angola could look to successful models implemented by other nations. For instance, the People's Republic of China and the United States have had considerable success with wind power, generating 941 TWh and 423 TWh respectively. Similarly, nuclear power in the United States and France has been highly productive, each producing over 300 TWh. Notably, Brazil, with a climate and topography similar to Angola, has effectively harnessed wind power to generate 94 TWh, indicating the viability of this energy source as a means of boosting Angola's electricity production.
Looking back at the history of low-carbon electricity generation in Angola, the dominant source has been hydropower. In the early part of 21st century, from 2001 to 2007, the generation of hydroelectricity saw a moderate increase year on year, peaking at 0.6 TWh in 2008. However, there were also some years of decline like in 2007 and 2012. The largest spikes in hydropower generation took place post-2016, notably in 2018 which saw an increase of 2.2 TWh compared to the previous year. As for biofuels, they had a short period of prominence in 2014, contributing 1.1 TWh, but this declined by 2017, underscoring the country's greater dependence on hydropower as a source of cleaner electricity.