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Electricity in Uzbekistan in 2021

Global Ranking: #141
8.1% #158 Low-carbon electricity
206.76 watts #126 Generation / person
502.01 gCO2eq/kWh #142 Carbon Intensity

Uzbekistan's electricity consumption is predominantly fuelled by fossil energy, with gas and coal together accounting for slightly over 100 TWh, meanwhile low-carbon energy sources contribute a relatively small proportion, at a little over 5 TWh for the year 2021. This clean energy primarily comes from hydropower, essentially mirroring the total low-carbon energy production. The country additionally relies on some net imports for its electricity. Compared to the global average electricity consumption of 410 watts per person, Uzbekistan falls below this benchmark. Being highly dependent on fossil fuels has multiple ramifications, from contributing significantly to carbon emissions and exacerbating climate change, to air quality degradation and the associated health risks, not to mention the volatility of fossil fuel prices affecting economic stability.


In harnessing low-carbon energy sources, Uzbekistan could draw lessons from countries that successfully leverage these sources. For instance, wind power has been efficiently utilized for electricity generation in the People's Republic of China, the United States, Germany, and Brazil. Nuclear power, another clean energy source, is substantially used by the United States, France, and South Korea. Solar energy is progressively manipulated for electricity in China, the US, and India. Considering Uzbekistan's geography and climatic conditions, solar and nuclear energy could be particularly suitable. Emulating these countries' strategies in prioritizing and investing in clean energy technologies can provide a blueprint for substantial increase in Uzbekistan's low-carbon electricity generation.


Low-carbon electricity has had a chequered history in Uzbekistan, with hydropower being the cornerstone. In the late 1980s, there were fluctuations in hydroelectric generation, with a dip in 1986, a recovery in 1987, and a reduction again in 1989. This trend of changeable hydroelectric generation persisted through the 1990s and 2000s with alternating periods of increase and decrease. In the early 2010s, there was another drop in hydropower, particularly in 2011, but this was followed by a steady rise over the next few years. However, the most substantial dip was in 2006, with a decline of 4.2 TWh. The last decade has seen a recurring pattern of decline and recovery. The lack of nuclear power generation highlights an untapped potential, considering the globally increasing shift towards nuclear as a reliable source of low-carbon electricity.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2022 to 2021 the data source is Energy Institute.
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