In Serbia's electricity consumption scenario for 2023, fossil fuels lead the way with almost 61 percent, predominantly dominated by coal. On the other hand, the share of low-carbon electricity, which includes hydropower, wind and nuclear energy, stands at slightly above 38 percent with hydropower contributing the most at nearly 35 percent. Wind and gas-based energy inputs contribute a modest amount of around 2.7% and 1.4% respectively, while other sources are close to none.
To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Serbia could learn from several successful examples set by other countries. For instance, France, Slovakia, and Ukraine derive a significant chunk of their electricity, more than 58%, from nuclear power, a clean and reliable energy source. Denmark utilizes wind power to meet 59% of its electricity needs, demonstrating the potential of maximizing wind resources. Serbia could explore these options considering its geography and resources, along with countries similar to it like Czechia and Bulgaria, both of which channel nuclear power to generate about 40% of their electricity.
Looking back at the history of low-carbon electricity, hydro has predominantly been the source of low-carbon electricity in Serbia. The early 2000s saw some fluctuations with hydroelectric generation dropping by around 2 TWh in 2000 and a further 1.2 TWh in 2003, followed by an upswing to an increase of 1.9 TWh in 2004. The following decade witnessed a series of ups and downs in hydro power production, highlighting an inconsistent pattern. Despite these fluctuations, there have been persistent efforts aimed at improving hydroelectric power with an increase of 3.2 TWh noted in 2023. Continued focus and strategic developments in this area will play a crucial role in improving Serbia's clean energy landscape.