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Electricity in Serbia in 2023

Global Ranking: #52
35.1% #96 Low-carbon electricity
596.53 watts #64 Generation / person
530.18 gCO2eq/kWh #150 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, more than half of Serbia's electricity comes from fossil fuels, specifically coal, which accounts for around 61% of the total electricity production. The remaining fossil fuel contribution, approximately 3%, comes from gas. On the clean energy front, Serbia generates 35% of its electricity from low-carbon sources. Hydropower is the dominant low-carbon source, contributing nearly 32%, with wind power making up close to 2.5%. The significant reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, results in considerable carbon emissions and air pollution, highlighting the urgent need for Serbia to adopt more clean energy alternatives.


To increase its low-carbon electricity generation, Serbia can look to countries with similar levels of industrial development and geographic features. For example, neighboring Bulgaria and Slovakia have achieved notable success with nuclear energy, generating 40% and 62% of their electricity from nuclear power, respectively. Similarly, Slovenia generates nearly 37% of its electricity from nuclear energy. Serbia could also take inspiration from Denmark and Ireland, which generate more than half and almost a third of their electricity from wind power. By investing in both nuclear and wind energy, Serbia could significantly reduce its reliance on coal and gas, thereby lowering its carbon footprint and improving air quality.


Throughout its history, Serbia has seen fluctuations in hydropower generation. In the 1990s, hydropower output varied, with increases in 1991 and 1995, but a notable decline in 1993. The late 1990s saw a mix of increases and decreases in hydropower generation, significantly affected by a -2.1 TWh drop in 2000. The early 2000s followed a similar pattern, with small increments and decrements. Exceptionally, in 2011, hydropower output plunged by 3.2 TWh. Notably, in recent years, there has been more stability but still some significant variation, such as a dip of -2.6 TWh in 2022, followed by a rebound with a 3.5 TWh increase in 2023. This volatility underscores the need for Serbia to diversify its low-carbon energy sources to ensure a stable and sustainable electricity supply.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2012 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2013 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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