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Electricity in Thailand in 2022

Global Ranking: #102
13.0% #145 Low-carbon electricity
353.45 watts #102 Generation / person
491.25 gCO2eq/kWh #135 Carbon Intensity
14.0% net imports Electricity imports

In 2022, Thailand's total electricity consumption per person stood at approximately 353 watts, which is slightly below the global average of 412 watts per person. Almost three quarters of this electricity was generated from fossil fuels, with gas and coal being the predominant sources, generating roughly 195 watts and 60 watts per person respectively. Low-carbon energy, including biofuels, hydropower, solar, and wind, accounted for close to none of the country's electricity generation, with just under 46 watts per person. This low level of electricity generation may result in the country being heavily reliant on imported energy, with nearly 14% of its total electricity consumption coming from net imports. This could pose potential issues such as energy security concerns and increased carbon emissions from the use of fossil fuel energy.


Looking at successful countries, Thailand could significantly increase its low-carbon electricity generation by tapping into nuclear and wind energy. Countries like Sweden, France, and South Korea have demonstrated the potential of nuclear energy, generating over 350 watts per person from this source. This shows that nuclear energy could be a feasible option for Thailand, given the appropriate technical infrastructure and regulatory measures. Moreover, wind energy could also be a viable option. Denmark, Norway and Ireland have achieved significant wind energy output, averaging over 250 watts per person. Emulating these countries' commitment to low-carbon energy could help Thailand reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and achieve greater energy security and sustainability.


Historically, low-carbon electricity generation in Thailand has primarily been through hydro and biofuels. The first significant increase in hydroelectric generation occurred in 1986, with a rise of 1.8 TWh. Subsequently, hydroelectric generation saw both increases and decreases, with the most notable increase reported in 2022, with an additional 2.1 TWh. In the past decade, biofuels have also contributed to Thailand's low-carbon electricity generation, with the largest increase of 10.8 TWh in 2016. However, the contribution of biofuels has fluctuated, with a notable decline of 3.3 TWh in 2019. The introduction of wind energy in 2019 added another 2 TWh to the low-carbon power mix. This shows that Thailand has been taking steps towards low-carbon electricity generation but has also faced challenges along the way.

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1991 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1992 to 1993 the data source is IEA.
For the year 1994 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1995 to 2005 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2006 to 2008 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2009 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.