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Electricity in Thailand in 2023

Global Ranking: #102
13.5% #143 Low-carbon electricity
44.95 % #54 Electrification
347.64 watts #101 Generation / person
478.38 gCO2eq/kWh #124 Carbon Intensity

Based on our proprietary forecast model, we are using the actual data for the first 11 months of 2023, and forecasted data for the remaining month, to describe Thailand's current electricity consumption. A majority of their energy is produced from fossil fuels, around 160 TWh, which comprises mainly of gas (approximately 129 TWh) and a lesser proportion of coal (around 30 TWh). The current low-carbon energy generation amounts to just under 30 TWh, with sources distributed amongst biofuels (14 TWh), hydropower (6.5 TWh), solar (5 TWh), and wind (3.6 TWh). The country also tends to import a sizable portion of energy, around 29 TWh. Compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, this underscores a profound reliance on fossil fuels and a low level of electricity generation. Prolonged dependency on such high-carbon sources may lead to unsustainable long-term environmental impacts, emphasizing the need for a transition towards cleaner energy resources.


To transition to low-carbon energy generation, Thailand can learn from the successes of other nations. Considering the climatic similarities, one such inspirational example can be found in its neighboring country, People's Republic of China, generating impressive 964 TWh and 523 TWh from wind and solar energy respectively. Japan, another Asian country with similar geographic conditions, has also achieved significant results with solar energy, producing an estimated 99 TWh. These instances reveal the potential benefits of harnessing wind and solar energy, options Thailand could leverage to increase its low-carbon electricity generation. Apart from these, nuclear energy usage in the United States and France, should also serve as an impetus for Thailand to invest in nuclear as a clean energy option.


Thailand's history of low-carbon electricity begins in the mid-1980s, marked by incremental growth in the production of hydropower. The late 1980s saw two noteworthy increases, each yielding an additional 1.8 TWh in 1986 and 1989. Towards the turn of the century, however, there were slight declines, notably in 1998 and 1999. However, the 2000s witnessed more consistent increases, despite occasional downfalls such as those in 2010 and 2013. The emergence of biofuels as a newfound source was manifested in 2013, with an influx in production of about 2.3 TWh. Despite a few brief recesses, biofuels experienced a substantial surge adding an extra 10.8 TWh in 2016. More recently, the generation from wind energy has started to gain momentum with an increase of 2 TWh in 2019, indicating Thailand's shift towards diversifying its portfolio of low-carbon energy sources.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1991 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1992 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1993 to 1994 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1995 to 2005 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2006 to 2008 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2009 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is LowCarbonPowerForecaster.
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