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Electricity in Thailand in 2023

Global Ranking: #102
13.6% #143 Low-carbon electricity
348.05 watts #101 Generation / person
479.40 gCO2eq/kWh #124 Carbon Intensity

Currently, based on an inclusive combination of actual data until October 2023 and projected data for the last two months, Thailand's major source of electricity is prevalently derived from fossil energy. This includes primarily gas, with an overwhelming 131.74 TWh contributing to far more than half of the total electricity ratio and coal power being much less, nearly one-fifth of the gas's decidedly significant consumption at around 30.44 TWh. These fossil fuel sources contrast sharply to low-carbon energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydropower, and biofuels, which together only provide a comparatively meager amount of 29.68 TWh, almost a tenth of the fossil energy. Nuclear energy usage is almost nil. Furthermore, using data from the first 10 months of 2023, we can estimate an average per person electricity usage considerably below the global average of 410 watts/person – a situation towards which cautious attention should be directed as such undersupply could potentially impede industrial growth and social development.


Examining the low-carbon electricity generation of successful countries forms an insightful blueprint for Thailand. For example, the People's Republic of China and the United States have proficiently harnessed wind energy, generating a massive 941 TWh and 423 TWh, respectively. Moreover, nuclear energy usage can be learned from the United States and France, which produce a colossal 776 TWh and 319 TWh from this clean energy source. Thailand can also adopt solar energy generation strategies from rising solar-power giants like China and India, who produced 531 TWh and 119 TWh from this green energy. Adapting to these successful countries' methods can pave the way towards a sizeable increase in Thailand's low-carbon electricity generation.


An overview of historical trends unveils the evolving nature of low-carbon electricity generation in Thailand. Hydroelectric power has been the primary low-carbon energy source, however, it has experienced a turbulent ride since its initiation in 1986. The 1980s and 1990s observed modest annual increases in generation, with production occasionally dipping slightly. Severe fluctuations were noted in the 2000s and 2010s, with power generation soaring as high as 2.9 TWh only to plummet by 3 TWh in other years. In contrast, biofuel generation experienced a notable surge in 2016, increasing by almost 11 TWh, but this was followed by an erratic pattern of gains and declines over the following years. Recently, wind power made its debut in 2019, contributing 2 TWh of electricity. This historical overview emphasizes the unsteady progress of low-carbon electricity generation in Thailand, with a much room for improvement and stability in the future.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1991 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1992 to 1993 the data source is IEA.
For the year 1994 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1995 to 2005 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2006 to 2008 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2009 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is LowCarbonPowerForecaster.
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