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Electricity in Zimbabwe in 2022

Global Ranking: #81
56.2% #62 Low-carbon electricity
42.72 % #68 Electrification
76.30 watts #166 Generation / person
308.94 gCO2eq/kWh #68 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Zimbabwe's electricity consumption was characterized by a strong reliance on low-carbon energy sources. The nation generated around 6 TWh from low-carbon sources, with almost all of this coming from hydropower, which totaled approximately 6 TWh. In contrast, fossil fuels, entirely from coal, contributed close to 3 TWh. Additionally, Zimbabwe relied on net imports which amounted to roughly 2 TWh. When comparing these figures to the global average electricity consumption of 432 watts per person, Zimbabwe falls short. This disparity in electricity generation can adversely affect economic growth, healthcare, and education, limiting the nation's development prospects and exacerbating inequities.


Zimbabwe can increase low-carbon electricity generation by learning from successful implementations in other nations, particularly those similar to it. For instance, Brazil has successfully integrated wind energy into its grid, generating nearly 100 TWh from this source. Additionally, India, another developing country, has made significant strides in solar energy, producing around 110 TWh. Investing in solar and wind technologies could significantly boost Zimbabwe's low-carbon electricity production. Moreover, nuclear energy has proven to be a robust option in both developed and developing countries. For example, China and India produce substantial amounts of clean electricity through nuclear power, amounting to 430 TWh and 50 TWh, respectively. Zimbabwe can benefit from adopting similar strategies to diversify its low-carbon energy portfolio.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Zimbabwe has predominantly revolved around hydropower. During the 1980s, the generation fluctuated slightly but seen more significant losses, with drops like 0.5 TWh in 1982 and another dip in 1987 by 0.6 TWh. The 1990s presented a mix of increases and declines; a noteworthy increase occurred in 1990 by 1 TWh, but 1991 and 1993 saw drops of 1.2 TWh and 1.1 TWh, respectively. The turn of the century marked more volatility with increases like 1.5 TWh in 2003, but subsequent years saw declines too. Most recently, hydropower saw a significant boost in 2021 with an increase of 2.1 TWh, giving hope for a more stable and significant contribution from low-carbon sources. This historical context underscores the importance of not just diversifying low-carbon sources but also stabilizing and increasing their contribution to ensure sustainable growth.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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