In Hong Kong SAR China, the majority of electricity consumed is generated from fossil fuels, which makes up approximately 74% of the total consumption in 2021. More than half of this fossil fuel-derived electricity comes from coal (approximately 44%), with the remaining almost a third generated using gas (around 30%). The share of low-carbon electricity, which includes any electricity that is not generated from fossil sources, is remarkably low, accounting for virtually none of the total electricity consumed (around 0.04%), all of which comes from solar energy. In addition to the electricity generated domestically, it is noteworthy that Hong Kong SAR China imports over 26% of the electricity it consumes.
Given the ecological impacts and the long-term sustainability problems associated with fossil energy, Hong Kong SAR China can take steps towards increasing its low-carbon electricity generation. There are numerous countries that Hong Kong SAR China can learn from in this regard. For instance, France, Ukraine, and Slovakia successfully produce over half their electricity from nuclear power, a clean and reliable source of energy. Alternatively, Denmark produces a significant proportion of its electricity from wind energy, contributing to over half of its total electricity generation. Other examples include the United Kingdom where almost a quarter of its electricity comes from wind, and solar energy dominates in countries such as Chile, Yemen, and Jordan where it accounts for over 15% of their total electricity generation.
Historically, the development of low-carbon electricity in Hong Kong SAR China has been marginal. From 2006 up until 2019, there has been virtually no generation of electricity from wind, biofuels, or solar energy. The data clearly shows that there has been a consistent lack of any significant change in the generation of electricity from these green energy sources over these years. By taking into consideration the relevant international experiences and exploiting the technical potentials for low-carbon electricity generation, Hong Kong SAR China would have an opportunity to reshape its electricity sector and make a significant contribution to global climate change mitigation efforts.