In Tunisia, based on our forecast model that uses actual data for the first nine months of the year 2023 and forecasted data for the remaining three months, fossil energy in the form of gas is the predominant source of electricity consumption, standing at around 18.46 TWh. This indicates a heavy reliance on non-renewable energy resources which is not ideal for a sustainable future. Compared to the global average electricity consumption rate of 410 watts per person, Tunisia's electricity production falls short. This could potentially lead to electricity shortages and impact industries, local businesses, and people's daily lives. Low levels of electricity generation may limit digital accessibility, hinder economic growth, impede the provision of public services, and strain essential facilities such as hospitals and schools.
In order to increase low-carbon electricity generation, Tunisia could learn from other countries which have made strides in this respect. For instance, the People's Republic of China and the United States have made significant strides in wind and nuclear energy production, generating 941 TWh and 776 TWh respectively. Similarly, France and the United States produce considerable electricity through nuclear methods, 819 TWh and 776 TWh respectively. It would also be worth looking at countries like Germany that produce high low-carbon energy with wind at 142 TWh or Spain that uses both wind and nuclear to produce a combined total of 115 TWh. Adapting some of these strategies could significantly boost Tunisia's low-carbon electricity production and contribute to a sustainable future.
In regards to Tunisia's historical production of low-carbon electricity, it began modestly in the mid-1980s with a focus on hydroelectric generation. Hydroelectric generation remained relatively stable from 1985 to 2009, with a slight decrease in 2006. The introduction of wind energy in 2009 increased low-carbon electricity production slightly. However, the production of wind energy has been inconsistent, fluctuating over the years, with a notable decline in 2022 and 2023. Solar energy was introduced only recently, in 2020, showing a positive trend and promising potential for the future. The history of low-carbon electricity in Tunisia indicates a progressively diversifying energy mix, which if capitalized upon effectively, can significantly aid in transitioning from fossil fuels.