Tunisia's electricity consumption per person of approximately 189 watts is considerably below the global average of 412 watts per individual. The country primarily relies on fossil fuel sources for its electricity generation, notable gas, contributing almost 180.5 watts per person to the total. The production of low-carbon energy, including wind, solar and hydropower, totals at a tad over 8 watts per person, a contrastingly minor part of Tunisia's energy mix. This dependence on fossil fuels for electricity supply, coupled with the low per capita electricity consumption, could have implications for the nation's sustainable development goals and climate change commitments. As an exporter of electricity, the country has potential to contribute more towards global low-carbon energy demands.
Despite these figures, Tunisia can look towards effective strategies from other nations to increase its low-carbon electricity generation. Countries like Denmark and Sweden have successfully harnessed wind power, generating 369 and 363 watts per person, respectively. Similarly, solar power has proved successful in nations such as Australia and Chile, providing around 147 and 85 watts per person, respectively. Given Tunisia's Mediterranean climate, it could draw from these countries' experience to expand its own solar and wind energy sectors further. Tunisia also can draw valuable lessons from numerous countries utilizing nuclear energy efficiently such as Sweden, France, and Finland generating 559, 526, and 517 watts per person respectively. Implementing similar strategies could help Tunisia increase its low-carbon electricity generation significantly.
Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity in Tunisia, notable changes occurred primarily in the 21st century, from the early 2000s onwards. Hydroelectric power had a small but consistent presence in Tunisia's energy mix from the mid-1980s, with a slight rise and fall over the years. However, it was not until 2009 that Tunisia began to generate wind power, which has incrementally increased over the past decade albeit with a small downturn in 2022 according to the data. The country ventured into solar power generation in 2020, with a promising increase into the following year, indicating an encouraging shift towards diverse low-carbon energy sources in Tunisia.