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Electricity in Singapore in 2023

Global Ranking: #132
4.5% #172 Low-carbon electricity
59.74 % #15 Electrification
1101.57 watts #21 Generation / person
481.59 gCO2eq/kWh #132 Carbon Intensity

In Singapore, electricity consumption in 2023 is overwhelmingly dependent on fossil fuels, with 95% of its electricity generated from these sources, and gas alone contributing almost 93%. Low-carbon energy sources account for about 4.5%, with biofuels providing roughly 3% and solar energy contributing 1.6%. These numbers signify a stark contrast between fossil fuels and low-carbon/clean energy, highlighting Singapore's significant reliance on fossil energy for its electricity needs, despite the importance of transitioning to greener alternatives.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Singapore can draw inspiration from countries excelling in this regard. For instance, France and Slovakia generate more than 60% of their electricity from nuclear power, showing the substantial impact that a commitment to nuclear energy can have. Denmark and Ireland, on the other hand, rely heavily on wind power, generating over half and almost a third of their electricity from this clean source, respectively. Singapore could blend these successful approaches by investing in both nuclear and wind energy, tailored to the city-state’s unique geographical and economic circumstances.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Singapore has seen fluctuations and slow growth. In the late 20th century, biofuels saw moderate increases, but by 2007, biofuel generation declined to zero. The 2010s marked small but consistent additions of biofuels and the introduction of solar energy in 2016. Solar energy saw incremental growth in the 2020s, with a notable increase of 0.3 TWh in both 2022 and 2023. This history indicates a gradual but slow adoption of low-carbon electricity sources, emphasizing the need for accelerated efforts and more substantial contributions from nuclear and wind energy to achieve a significant reduction in fossil fuel dependency.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the year 1985 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1986 to 1991 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1992 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2007 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2008 to 2018 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2019 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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