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Electricity in Uganda in 2022

Global Ranking: #97
98.9% #5 Low-carbon electricity
13.42 watts #198 Generation / person
46.44 gCO2eq/kWh #8 Carbon Intensity

In 2022, Uganda consumed a total of roughly 5.33 TWh of low-carbon electricity, with hydropower contributing the largest share at 4.81 TWh, while biofuels added a minimal amount. The significant reliance on hydropower shows a strong commitment towards low-carbon energy sources. However, fossil fuel consumption is not explicitly detailed here, which may still play a crucial role given the global transition challenges. When compared to the global average electricity consumption of 425 watts per person, Uganda's electricity generation and consumption are markedly lower, leading to potential constraints on economic development and modern conveniences. Low levels of electricity generation can also impede progress in education, healthcare, and other essential services, impacting overall quality of life.

Suggestions

To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Uganda could draw lessons from other countries' successes in deploying various sustainable energy technologies. For instance, China has substantially increased its share of wind energy, generating 886 TWh, and solar power at 584 TWh. Additionally, countries like Brazil have successfully harnessed wind energy, contributing 96 TWh. Uganda can adopt similar strategies by leveraging its geographical advantages for solar and wind energy installations. Given the relatively similar climate and economic challenges, Uganda might focus on small to medium-scale solar and wind projects that are scalable and financially viable. Adoption of these technologies can dramatically reduce reliance on fossil fuels, while mitigating climate change and air pollution impacts.

History

Uganda's journey in low-carbon electricity has predominantly revolved around hydropower. Early efforts date back to 1992, with consistent modest increases in hydro generation noted over the years. Major incremental gains were seen in 2012 with a 0.9 TWh boost and consistent smaller increases thereafter. Although there were slight declines, like in 2006 with a -0.7 TWh change, the country quickly rebounded. The introduction of biofuels in 2015 added a minor contribution, though it fluctuated slightly in subsequent years. Particularly from 2019 onwards, the hydro sector saw positive growth, contributing 0.4 TWh in 2019 and 0.6 TWh in 2021. By 2022, hydro continued its moderate rise with an additional 0.2 TWh, showing resilience and a steady commitment to expanding clean energy. Uganda's historical emphasis on hydropower has laid a strong foundation, but diversifying into other low-carbon sources like wind and solar is essential for future sustainability.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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