For the year 2021, the electricity consumption in the Dominican Republic mainly depended on fossil energy sources with a total usage of approximately 25.52 TWh, broken down into Gas (6.41 TWh), Coal (4.55 TWh), and other fossil sources (14.56 TWh). Low-carbon energy constituted a relatively small portion of the total consumption, totalling at 3.02 TWh. Within this category, Wind energy contributed 1.29 TWh and Hydropower 1 TWh. In comparison to the global average electricity consumption per person, which stands at 410 watts, the Dominican Republic's generation is relatively low. This underproduction may impede advancements in sectors such as technology and manufacturing which rely heavily on electricity, and also stymie efforts towards sustainable urban and rural development.
To increase its low-carbon electricity generation, the Dominican Republic may glean wisdom from some successful practices of countries with similar characteristics. For instance, Brazil, which is located in a similar geographical location characterised by tropical climate, generates a significant portion of its electricity from wind (94 TWh) and solar (50 TWh) sources. The Dominican Republic, being in the tropical zone with abundant sunlight and wind, could maximise these locally available resources similarly. Spain, too despite sharing no geographical similarities, has made noteworthy strides, generating 54 TWh and 40 TWh from nuclear and solar electricity respectively, a model worth emulating.
Low-carbon electricity generation history in the Dominican Republic has seen fluctuations in hydro-generated electricity since 1976. The 1970s kicked off with a modest increase of 0.4 TWh from hydro-energy in 1976. However, the two decades that followed were characterised by noticeable instability, with recurrent decreases and increases in hydroelectric generation. Most strikingly, there was a significant dip in hydroelectric power in 1989, declining by 1.2 TWh. Despite these downturns, concerted efforts were made in the 21st century especially the year 2017 and 2016 to ramp up hydroelectric power with an increase of 0.7 and 0.6 TWh respectively. The renewable energy spectrum further diversified in 2020 when the country began generating wind energy, contributing 0.3 TWh to the national grid. This suggests a promising move towards harnessing a variety of low-carbon energy sources, which could help make the country's electricity generation more efficient and sustainable.