Currently, the electricity consumption in Guinea-Bissau is significantly low compared to the global average of 410 watts per person. The small African country relies heavily on fossil fuels for electricity generation, with clean, low-carbon energy sources making up only a tiny fraction of the total consumption. This situation is detrimental, because it not only leads to higher carbon emissions but also limits the country's access to stable and reliable electricity supply. This low level of electricity generation often results in frequent power outages and severely tampers economic productivity and social well-being of citizens.
One way for Guinea-Bausau to increase its low-carbon electricity generation would be by learning from countries with similar contexts and resources. For instance, Brazil and India have successfully harnessed wind and solar for electricity generation, providing 94 TWh and 119 TWh respectively in the year of consideration. Considering Guinea-Bissau's geographical location and climatic conditions, the country can tap into the potential of solar and wind energy for efficient, low-carbon electricity generation. Lessons from Vietnam may also be valuable, as the country has effectively utilized solar power to generate 26 TWh of electricity in 2021.
Regarding the history of low-carbon electricity in Guinea-Bissau, the data showed that the nation initially leaned toward biomass energy, with little to no focus on other sources. However, over the years, there has been a gradual shift towards low-carbon energy sources, albeit at a slow pace. Specifically, electricity generation from solar and wind sources have seen modest increases, although their contribution to the total electricity generation remains low. Nevertheless, Guinea-Bissau has shown commitment to increasing its low-carbon energy capacity, suggesting a promising future for clean energy in the country. This historic trend underlines the significance of a diverse energy mix, and it offers valuable lessons for the country's future energy planning. It's clear that a robust, low-carbon electricity system in Guinea-Bissau will play a crucial role in mitigating climate change and ensuring sustainable development for its people.