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Electricity in Mexico in 2023

Global Ranking: #125
22.9% #121 Low-carbon electricity
32.80 % #92 Electrification
321.14 watts #105 Generation / person
433.23 gCO2eq/kWh #109 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Mexico's electricity consumption is predominantly reliant on fossil fuels, with over half of its electricity, approximately 472 TWh, generated from sources like natural gas and coal. Clean energy sources, including solar, wind, hydropower, and nuclear, contribute almost 82 TWh, which is a modest share compared to the fossil fuel-dominated segment. Solar and hydropower are neck and neck at around 21 TWh each, while nuclear and wind come close, offering around 12 TWh and 21 TWh respectively. In total, Mexico's electricity consumption amounts to roughly 529 TWh for its population, which translates to around 375 watts per person. This is below the global average of 425 watts per person, potentially limiting economic development and modern conveniences for the population due to restricted access to reliable and sustainable electricity.


To elevate its level of low-carbon electricity generation, Mexico can draw from the successful strategies of several other nations. For instance, the United States stands out for its significant investments in nuclear energy, producing an impressive 775 TWh, as well as in wind and solar power, generating 425 TWh and 238 TWh respectively. Similarly, China has demonstrated robust leadership by generating 886 TWh from wind and 584 TWh from solar energy. Brazil's achievements in wind energy, with 96 TWh, suggest that countries with similar demographics and climates to Mexico can substantially boost their clean energy output. Mexico should consider diversifying its low-carbon portfolio by investing more intensively in nuclear, wind, and solar technologies, taking cues from these global leaders to sustainably meet its electricity requirements.


Mexico's history in low-carbon electricity generation reflects varied progress, with particular emphasis on hydropower. In the early 1980s, hydroelectric capacity saw increases, but notable declines occurred in 1986 and 1994, with reductions of about 7.1 TWh and 6.4 TWh respectively. The late 1990s and early 2000s continued to showcase fluctuations in hydroelectric output, with significant growth in 2008 (11.9 TWh) followed by a sharp decline in 2009 (-12.5 TWh). Rising interest in solar and wind began around 2019, with incremental contributions peaking up to 9.2 TWh for solar in 2020. Although hydropower faced a drastic drop in 2023 with a reduction of -15 TWh, it's clear that Mexico's commitment to expanding various forms of low-carbon energy is crucial for a sustainable future. Strengthening the investment in nuclear, wind, and solar will be imperative to reduce reliance on fossil fuels.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1973 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1995 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1996 to 2002 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2003 to 2008 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2009 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2020 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2021 the data sources are Energy Institute and Ember (imports/exports).
For the years 2022 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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