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Electricity in Mexico in 2023

Global Ranking: #92
18.2% #131 Low-carbon electricity
349.03 watts #100 Generation / person
450.30 gCO2eq/kWh #113 Carbon Intensity

Based on our forecast model, which includes actual data for the first 11 months of 2023 and projected data for December, Mexico derives a substantial amount of its electricity from fossil fuels. This is divided amongst gas (234.2 TWh), oil (43.04 TWh) and coal (25.23 TWh), amounting to well over half the country’s electricity generation. The low-carbon energy options, on the other hand, contribute close to a third of the total. This includes a mix of wind (20.73 TWh), hydropower (17.51 TWh), solar (14.4 TWh), nuclear (12.12 TWh), geothermal (4.25 TWh) and biofuels (1.54 TWh). Compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, Mexico’s reliance on fossil fuel generation, particularly gas, can contribute to increased air pollution and hazardous health consequences, whilst also hampering global efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change.


Mexico has every opportunity to increase its low-carbon energy generation and there is much to learn from countries with a similar mix of low-carbon opportunities. Considering nations with a similar climate, Brazil, for example, has been able to generate nearly twice the amount of wind-based electricity compared to Mexico, standing at 94 TWh. Similarly, Spain has managed to produce 54 TWh of electricity from nuclear power, presenting an opportunity for Mexico to further harness the potential of its own nuclear sources. The success of solar generation in People's Republic of China (531 TWh) and Australia (41 TWh) could be echoed in Mexico with the right investments and supportive policies in place.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Mexico shows an interesting trajectory, with fluctuations seen in hydropower generation over the years. The early 1980s represented a period of growth for hydropower, seeing an increase of 7.7 TWh in 1981 followed by a slightly lower growth of 4.8 TWh in 1985. However, the late 1980s and the 1990s were marked by notable drops in hydropower output, with a decrease of 7.1 TWh in 1986 and a further 6.4 TWh drop in 1994. In recent decades of the 21st century, swings in hydroelectric power generation continued on the similar pattern. However, a significant decrease in hydro, by 17.8 TWh, was observed in 2023. Newer clean sources like solar have gradually made an appearance with an upward tick of 4.7 TWh in 2019. The biofuels sector witnessed a decline of 5.2 TWh in the same year, followed by further fall in 2023. Despite these shifts, it is clear that Mexico has a rich history of low-carbon energy production and possesses a diverse array of untapped resources that could be harnessed for future electricity generation.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1973 to 1984 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1995 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1996 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2009 to 2019 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2020 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is LowCarbonPowerForecaster.
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