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Electricity in Myanmar (Burma) in 2022

Global Ranking: #136
42.2% #76 Low-carbon electricity
46.43 watts #174 Generation / person
304.87 gCO2eq/kWh #68 Carbon Intensity

As of 2022, Myanmar’s electricity generation predominantly comes from fossil fuels and gas, generating about 12.65 TWh and 11.84 TWh respectively. However, there has been a significant amount of electricity generated from low-carbon sources, particularly hydro power, which makes up almost the entire low-carbon tally of 9.23 TWh. Even by adding gas, viewed as a lower-carbon fossil fuel to the mix, Myanmar’s per capita electricity generation is significantly lower than the global average of 410 watt/person. This low level of electricity generation is likely hindering the country's economic development and ability to deliver services like healthcare and education.

Suggestions

Looking at global leaders in low-carbon energy, Myanmar can draw lessons from countries with similar conditions to its own. Countries with abundant hydroelectric power, such as Brazil and Canada, combine wind, solar and nuclear energy to reduce dependency on a single power source. Following their example, Myanmar could improve its infrastructure and build capacity for wind and solar power generation as well as considering nuclear energy as a source of clean, low-carbon energy. Asia’s regional leading country in this regard, China, has successfully deployed wind and solar energy while possessing a significant portion of the world's nuclear power capacity, offering another potential roadmap for Myanmar.

History

Myanmar's introduction to low-carbon electricity generation dates back to 1989 when it began producing 0.2TWh from hydroelectric power. The journey, dominated by hydroelectricity, has spanned over three decades, with relative consistency and steady growth. Substantial increases in hydro power were recorded in 2011 with an addition of 2.4TWh and again in 2017 and 2018 where an increase of 1.3TWh each was logged. However, the country faced minor setbacks in 1998 and recently in 2021, with a reduction of 0.7TWh and 2.0TWh respectively. Despite these reductions, the overall trend of hydroelectric power generation in Myanmar has been positive, helping the country reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and move towards more sustainable forms of energy.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2022 the data source is Ember.
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