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Electricity in Botswana in 2021

Global Ranking: #180
0.2% #184 Low-carbon electricity
177.73 watts #133 Generation / person
620.39 gCO2eq/kWh #181 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Botswana's electricity consumption was heavily reliant on fossil fuels, primarily coal, with a total fossil energy generation of around 2.18 TWh and coal contributing to 1.79 TWh. This is supplemented by a significant amount of net imports, approximately 1.84 TWh. In contrast, there was no generation of low-carbon electricity in the country. When compared to the global average of 410 watts per person, Botswana's electricity generation levels are low. This can potentially hinder the country's efforts to modernize, diversify the economy and improve the quality of life. High dependency on fossil fuels also exacerbates global climate change and leads to environmental degradation.


To increase its low-carbon electricity generation, Botswana can learn from countries that have been successful in this field. For instance, the People's Republic of China has heavily invested in wind and solar energy, generating around 964 TWh and 523 TWh respectively. The United States has also made significant strides in producing energy from nuclear plants, accounting for around 775 TWh. In Africa, South Africa has made considerable progress in generating solar electricity with around 16 TWh. Botswana can emulate these paths by investing in wind, solar, and nuclear power infrastructure. It might be necessary to partner with international organizations and countries to gain expertise and capital.


Looking back, however, Botswana's history with low-carbon electricity generation is virtually non-existent. Throughout the last decade, from 2012 to 2021, there has been no change in solar electricity generation, maintaining a stagnant figure of zero TWh. This untouched potential reflects a lack of focus on clean energy resources in the past. The absence of transitions towards low-carbon energy sources underlines a critical necessity for change for the betterment of Botswana's economy and environment. If Botswana doesn't shift its focus towards low-carbon, sustainable energy sources like nuclear, wind and solar, it will continue to lag behind, further deepening its environmental and economic challenges.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the year 1980 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1981 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 2007 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2008 to 2011 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2012 to 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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