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Electricity in Lebanon in 2021

Global Ranking: #130
5.6% #165 Low-carbon electricity
49.79 % #39 Electrification
421.71 watts #90 Generation / person
528.30 gCO2eq/kWh #153 Carbon Intensity

In 2021, Lebanon's electricity consumption was dominated by fossil fuel sources, mostly gas. Fossil fuel accounted for a whopping 93.95% of the nation's electricity consumption, with gas comprising nearly 55.13% of that value. Conversely, the proportion of low-carbon energy in the total electricity generation was relatively low, rounding off to nearly 5.61%. Hydropower, a form of clean energy, contributed approximately 4.7% to the total generation. Therefore, it is clear that there is a substantial reliance on fossil fuels in Lebanon's electricity generation.


Analyzing successful countries might provide fruitful insights about how Lebanon can boost low-carbon electricity generation. Countries like Denmark and Ireland have capitalized on wind energy, creating a benchmark with roughly 59% and 35% of their electricity powered by wind respectively. Similarly, countries with geographical and climatic attributes similar to Lebanon, such as Spain and Greece, have also efficiently harnessed wind and solar power, supplying around 23% and 20% of their electricity demand respectively. Furthermore, nuclear energy, another clean source, has demonstrated high potential. For example, France and Slovakia generate more than half of their electricity using nuclear power. Lebanon could explore the feasibility of these low-carbon solutions to diversify its energy mix and reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Lebanon shows a focused reliance on hydroelectric power. Starting from the early 1980s, hydroelectricity generation saw quite a few ups and down in production. Although there were years like 2003 and 2019, where hydropower surged by 0.7 and 0.6 TWh respectively, periods of significant decline such as 2006 and 2014 were also prevalent, where the generation fell by 0.4 and 1.1 TWh respectively. It is evident that the contribution of hydroelectricity to Lebanon's total electricity has been inconsistent, causing an immense reliance on fossil fuels over the years.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1987 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1988 to 1994 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1995 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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