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Electricity in Lebanon in 2021

Global Ranking: #108
5.6% #164 Low-carbon electricity
421.71 watts #92 Generation / person
528.30 gCO2eq/kWh #151 Carbon Intensity
0.4% net imports Electricity imports

In 2021, Lebanon's electricity consumption was predominantly reliant on fossil fuels, contributing to close to 94% of its electricity supply, with gas accounting for over half. The share of low-carbon energy stood at a mere 5.6%, with hydropower contributing over 4% followed by marginal inclusions of solar, biofuels, and wind. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that a trivial part, less than 0.5%, of Lebanon's electricity consumption was met through net imports of electricity.


There are numerous steps Lebanon could take to increase its low carbon electricity generation. The country could take inspiration from various nations that have successfully harnessed low-carbon sources for their energy needs. For instance, considering Lebanon’s geographical features, adopting Denmark’s approach of utilizing wind energy, which effectively covers almost 52% of Denmark’s electricity needs, could be an effective platform. Comparatively, acknowledging the array of sun-soaked days Lebanon experiences, it should also accommodate strategies implemented by countries like Chile and Yemen, generating 17% of their electricity needs from solar power. Harnessing nuclear energy should also not be dismissed considering its significant contribution and successful implementation in countries like France and Slovakia, where it accounts for 61% and 57% of the electricity produced, respectively.


Looking back over the years, Lebanon’s engagement with low-carbon electricity, namely hydropower, has been somewhat unstable. The 1980s introduced a slight slump in hydropower generation, more noticeably in 1982 and 1990. However, the 1990s were marked by a series of fluctuations, with minimal increases in 1991, 1993, and 1996, overshadowed by a notable decrease in 1999. The early 2000s brought a refreshing surge, peaking in 2003. Yet, just as quickly, it fell again, with notable drops in 2004, 2006, and 2008. But in more recent years, we see a positive trend, with increases almost every year from 2009 onwards, apart from a significant hiccup in 2014. Despite the ups and downs, it is encouraging to note that hydropower generation of the last recorded year, 2019, was twice as high as it was in the early 1990s, suggesting progress in Lebanon's journey towards adopting low-carbon energy sources.

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1994 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1995 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2009 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2010 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2011 to 2021 the data source is Ember.