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Electricity in North Macedonia in 2022

Global Ranking: #77
21.8% #124 Low-carbon electricity
472.72 watts #86 Generation / person
517.18 gCO2eq/kWh #148 Carbon Intensity
Up to 100% Electricity imports

In terms of electricity generation in North Macedonia during 2022, more than half (about 58%) is derived from fossil fuels including coal (40%), natural gas (13%) and oil (5%). The contribution from low-carbon sources is almost a quarter (around 22%) of the total electricity generation, with nearly all of this coming from hydropower (19%). Wind, biofuel, and solar energy combined make up a small slice—with wind at 1.6%, biofuels at 0.57%, and solar even lower at 0.34%. This energy mix is supplemented by net imports, which make up close to 20% of the country's electricity consumption. At times, these net imports reach a peak value equating to the full electricity consumption of the country.


For North Macedonia to achieve more substantial progress in its low-carbon electricity generation, it could look to similarly sized nations who've had success in this area. Nuclear energy plays a significant role in several countries' low-carbon generation, including Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Slovakia—all countries similar in size to North Macedonia—which boast percentages of 38%, 33%, and 57% respectively. Wind energy has seen considerable success in Denmark, a country of similar population size, which derives over half of its electricity from this source. Lastly, solar energy, although currently playing a minor role in North Macedonia’s energy sector, has seen significant uptake in countries such as Chile and Yemen, contributing 17% of their electricity generation. Or Cyprus and Greece, which are Mediterranean neighbors, utilizing it for 12% of their electricity needs.


Looking at the history of low-carbon electricity in North Macedonia, it's evident that its efforts have centered primarily around hydropower. In the early 90s, there was a slight uptake in hydroelectric power with a growth of 0.4 TWh in 1991, following a slight downturn and then stabilizing towards the late 90s. The new millennium brought some challenges as hydroelectric power saw a dip of 0.5 TWh in 2001, but it rebounded with an increase of 0.6 TWh in 2003. After a period of fluctuation from 2007 to 2017, with slight increases and decreases, there was a substantial increase of 0.7 TWh in 2018. Though there was a downturn in the following year, 2022 saw a modest increase of 0.2 TWh in hydroelectric power, demonstrating the country's continuous, albeit uneven, commitment to this form of low-carbon energy.

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 2004 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2005 to 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2009 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2010 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2022 the data source is Ember.