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Electricity in North Macedonia in 2023

Global Ranking: #89
18.0% #133 Low-carbon electricity
59.51 % #17 Electrification
373.04 watts #95 Generation / person
525.66 gCO2eq/kWh #151 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, North Macedonia’s electricity consumption is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, with more than half of its electricity generated from these sources. Specifically, coal accounts for about 2.6 TWh, gas contributes approximately 1.3 TWh, and net imports add another 1.4 TWh, summing up to around 5.9 TWh. On the other hand, low-carbon energy contributes a smaller share, with hydropower generating about 1.1 TWh out of a total of 1.2 TWh. In round numbers, the nation’s electricity consumption totals approximately 6.1 TWh annually. North Macedonia's average electricity generation per person falls short of the global average of 410 watts/person, which could lead to limited industrial growth, reduced quality of life, and dependency on electricity imports, thereby impacting the country's economic stability.


North Macedonia can look to other countries for inspiration on enhancing its low-carbon electricity generation. Several nations have made significant strides in different forms of low-carbon energy. For instance, Germany and the United Kingdom have achieved substantial wind energy generation, with Germany producing 142 TWh and the UK around 82 TWh. North Macedonia can invest in wind farms, leveraging its geographical potential as these countries have successfully done. Additionally, countries like Spain and Vietnam have also made significant advancements in solar energy, generating 40 TWh and 13 TWh respectively. By investing in solar farms, North Macedonia can maximize its sunlight exposure to boost electricity production. Moreover, North Macedonia should consider exploring nuclear energy akin to France, which generates 319 TWh from nuclear sources, ensuring a stable and low-carbon electricity supply.


The history of low-carbon electricity in North Macedonia, especially hydropower, has seen significant fluctuations over the years. In the early 1990s, the country experienced modest growth with an increase of 0.4 TWh in 1991, followed by a sharp decline of approximately 0.3 TWh in 1993. Towards the end of the 1990s, there were slight positive changes, but the early 2000s saw a period of instability with declines such as -0.2 TWh in 2000 and -0.5 TWh in 2001, punctuated by a substantial rise of 0.6 TWh in 2003. However, around 2010, North Macedonia saw a considerable increase of 1.2 TWh, only to face a significant drop of 1 TWh in 2011. In recent years, particularly post-2017, the fluctuating trend continued with a rise of 0.7 TWh in 2018, followed by a subsequent decline in subsequent years, culminating in a reduction of 0.5 TWh in 2023. This volatility highlights the need for diversification and stability in the country’s low-carbon electricity generation portfolio.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Maximum Imports

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 2004 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2005 to 2008 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2009 the data source is IEA.
For the year 2010 the data source is Ember.
For the years 2011 to 2012 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2013 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2023 the data source is ENTSOE.
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