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Electricity in Eswatini in 2021

Global Ranking: #90
42.2% #77 Low-carbon electricity
158.94 watts #139 Generation / person
315.63 gCO2eq/kWh #72 Carbon Intensity

As of 2021, low-carbon electricity production in Eswatini is relatively low, particularly when contrasted with the global average of 410 watts per person. The majority of Eswatini's electricity comes from biofuels and hydro power, both of which are low-carbon but still contribute significantly less to the nation's electricity supply than fossil fuels. This has several knock-on effects for the nation; lower levels of electricity production can lead to difficulties in supplying energy to the entire population, inhibiting development in rural areas, and limiting economic growth. Additionally, a reliance on fossil fuels can contribute to climate change and result in negative health impacts.


To increase its low-carbon electricity production, Eswatini could look to similar nations for inspiration. Countries like Brazil and South Africa, which have comparable climates and economies, have been successful in leveraging their natural resources to harness wind and solar power respectively. Brazil's wind power production, for instance, stands at a staggering 94 TWh, while South Africa generates 16 TWh from solar power. Similarly, Eswatini, with its ample sunshine and favorable wind conditions, could invest further in these forms of clean energy. This would not only reduce its reliance on fossil fuels but also create jobs and stimulate development in the technologies required for low-carbon energy.


Historically, there has been a relatively steady increase in the use of both biofuels and hydro power in Eswatini. From the start of the century in 2000, the country made consistent use of biofuels, albeit at a low level, with a slight increase in 2011 and 2012. Hydro power increased and decreased alternately throughout the years, with a slight increase in overall usage observed throughout the 2010s. Interestingly, though there were a few yearly reductions, none of them were significant, and the overall contribution of hydro power to Eswatini's clean energy portfolio has remained relatively steady. Despite the fluctuations, this demonstrates a sustained commitment to low-carbon energy sources. However, to keep up with global advancements and to meet future energy needs, it will be essential for Eswatini to expand its current portfolio to include more diverse sources of low-carbon electricity such as solar and wind.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1989 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2021 the data source is Ember.
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