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Electricity in Eswatini in 2022

Global Ranking: #77
36.2% #91 Low-carbon electricity
34.27 % #90 Electrification
142.66 watts #143 Generation / person
321.62 gCO2eq/kWh #73 Carbon Intensity

As of 2022, electricity consumption in Eswatini is primarily based on fossil fuels with a significant portion coming from low-carbon sources. More than half of the electricity generated in Eswatini comes from coal, which is a major contributor to carbon emissions and air pollution. However, there has been some use of biofuels and hydro, which collectively contribute to less than a third of the total electricity generation. Compared to the global average of 432 watts per person, Eswatini's electricity consumption per capita is much lower. This limited electricity generation can hinder economic growth, restrict access to modern amenities, and contribute to energy poverty among the residents of Eswatini.


To increase low-carbon electricity generation, Eswatini can look to other countries that have successfully expanded their clean energy infrastructure. For instance, India's efforts in solar energy, which resulted in 113 TWh, and wind energy, with 82 TWh, offer valuable insights. Eswatini could leverage its geographic and climatic conditions to harness solar and wind power effectively. Another noteworthy example is Brazil, which has made significant strides in wind energy, generating 96 TWh, demonstrating that countries in similar developmental stages can achieve substantial clean energy outputs. By studying these models, Eswatini might explore cooperative ventures or technology transfers to expand its own clean energy capacity, while simultaneously reducing dependency on fossil fuels.


Historically, Eswatini has seen fluctuations in its low-carbon electricity generation. In 2000, there was an increase of 0.5 TWh from biofuels, but several years saw no growth or even declines, such as a 0.2 TWh drop in biofuels in 2011. Hydro power generation also experienced variations, with small increments and decrements, such as a 0.1 TWh reduction in 2003 and a similar 0.1 TWh increase in 2013 and 2017. In recent times, from 2018 to 2020, hydro power generation has remained stagnant with no significant changes. This historical context suggests a need for more consistent and robust policies to enhance the share of low-carbon electricity in the national grid and promote a sustainable energy future for Eswatini.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are EIA and Enerdata (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2022 the data source is Ember.
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