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Electricity in Puerto Rico in 2023

Global Ranking: #158
2.1% #182 Low-carbon electricity
652.11 watts #57 Generation / person
605.72 gCO2eq/kWh #175 Carbon Intensity

In 2023, Puerto Rico's electricity consumption remains overwhelmingly reliant on fossil fuels, with almost 98% coming from these sources. Breaking it down, gas accounts for nearly 38% and coal provides close to 16%. In contrast, low-carbon (or clean) energy sources make up a mere 2.1% of the total electricity generation. Within this segment, solar energy leads with just over 1%, while other clean energy contributions are close to none. This significant dependency on fossil fuels raises concerns about air pollution and climate change impacts.


Puerto Rico has the potential to significantly boost its low-carbon electricity generation by learning from countries that have successfully diversified their energy mix. For instance, Uruguay generates 35% of its electricity from wind, a viable option for Puerto Rico given its favorable wind conditions. Similarly, leveraging solar energy could be inspired by Yemen and Chile, both generating 20% of their electricity from solar power. Moreover, considering a robust nuclear strategy, as seen in France (65% nuclear) and Slovakia (62% nuclear), could provide a consistent and substantial low-carbon electricity supply for Puerto Rico.


Historically, Puerto Rico's foray into low-carbon electricity generation has been limited and sporadic. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were minor fluctuations in hydroelectric power, with marginal increases in 1985, 1987, and 1996, and some declines in 1981, 1990, and 2000. More recently, wind energy saw a modest rise in 2013 and 2019 but experienced a decline in 2023. Solar energy had a notable increase in 2019 but offset prior declines in 2018 and 2017. This historical context underscores an urgent need for strategic and sustained investment in clean energy sources to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and enhance sustainable electricity generation.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1999 the data source is EIA.
For the years 2000 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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