LowCarbonPower logo

Electricity in Vietnam in 2022

Global Ranking: #54
51.3% #61 Low-carbon electricity
310.19 watts #107 Generation / person
376.68 gCO2eq/kWh #83 Carbon Intensity
0.6% net imports Electricity imports

Vietnam currently generates about 310 watts per person in electricity, significantly below the global average of 412 watts per person. Just a little over half of this power comes from low-carbon energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power which contributes around 118 watts per person. Fossil fuels—primarily coal and gas—make up the rest of the energy portfolio, together contributing nearly 150 watts per person. Clean energy sources like wind and solar still make up a fairly small percentage of the overall energy mix. With levels of electricity generation lower than average, the country could potentially struggle to meet increasing demand given its growing economy and population. The country does import some of its electricity, about 0.57% of consumption, to supplement domestic production.


Vietnam can learn from the success of other countries in increasing the production of low-carbon electricity. Given its tropical climate, Vietnam could potentially replicate Australia's success with solar power, which generates 147 watts per person. Moreover, the success of many European countries with wind power could also be instructive for Vietnam, considering its long coastline and considerable offshore wind potential. Countries like Denmark and Sweden are noteworthy, with each generating around 360 watts per person from wind energy. Moreover, considering countries like Sweden and France, which generate more than 500 watts per person from nuclear power, it can also be a viable, low-carbon option for Vietnam, given the high energy yield and low emission characteristic of nuclear power.


The history of low-carbon electricity generation in Vietnam is primarily marked by the use of hydroelectric power. Since the start of the 21st century, there have been significant increases in hydroelectric power generation, albeit with some fluctuations. There was steady growth in the use of hydroelectric power from 2001, peaking at 23.4 TWh in 2017. However, there were occasional dips, the most dramatic being a decrease of almost 18 TWh in 2019. In recent years, solar power has emerged as a new player in Vietnam's energy mix. Starting from 2019, solar power generation has shown a consistent growth year-on-year, reaching nearly 15 TWh in 2021. The most recent data for 2022 indicates a resurgence in hydroelectric power, alongside a promising increase in wind power generation.

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data sources are Energy Institute and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 2000 to 2007 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2008 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2009 to 2022 the data source is Ember.