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Electricity in Nigeria in 2023

Global Ranking: #173
20.5% #126 Low-carbon electricity
21.74 watts #188 Generation / person
394.41 gCO2eq/kWh #97 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Nigeria's electricity consumption primarily relies on fossil fuels, with 32.3 TWh generated from gas, making up almost 80% of the total electricity output. Low-carbon sources constitute a minor share, with hydropower accounting for 8.28 TWh and other low-carbon technologies contributing 8.35 TWh. Given Nigeria's population, this results in a per capita electricity consumption significantly below the global average of 432 watts/person. This low level of electricity generation can hamper economic growth, limit industrial activities, and restrict access to essential services, thereby affecting overall quality of life.


To enhance low-carbon electricity generation, Nigeria can draw lessons from countries with robust clean energy programs. China’s substantial investments in wind (886 TWh) and solar power (584 TWh) showcase the potential of these technologies. The United States' significant use of nuclear energy (775 TWh) and wind power (425 TWh) further emphasizes the benefits of diverse low-carbon sources. Nigeria, which shares some developmental challenges with India and Brazil, can also look to these countries; India has made progress in both solar (113 TWh) and wind energy (82 TWh), while Brazil has achieved notable gains in both wind (96 TWh) and solar (52 TWh). By adopting similar strategies and investing in a combination of nuclear, wind, and solar power, Nigeria can diversify its energy mix and reduce reliance on fossil fuels.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Nigeria, focused mainly on hydropower, has seen several fluctuations. In the early 1980s, changes were minimal with modest gains and losses. By the early 1990s, there was a notable increase of 1.5 TWh in 1991. However, there were periods of decline as seen in 1993 and 2000. The early 2000s showed a mix of gains and losses, highlighted by a significant increase of 2.3 TWh in 2002. Recent years have seen more stability, with gradual increases in hydropower, such as 1.1 TWh in 2015 and 1.7 TWh in 2016, demonstrating potential for further development of low-carbon sources. Consistent growth in hydropower sets a precedent for introducing other clean energy technologies to scale up Nigeria’s electricity generation sustainably.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1985 the data sources are EIA and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1986 to 1989 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1990 to 1996 the data source is IEA.
For the years 1997 to 1999 the data source is EIA.
For the years 2000 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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