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Electricity in Colombia in 2022

Global Ranking: #51
74.8% #32 Low-carbon electricity
188.31 watts #132 Generation / person
166.20 gCO2eq/kWh #33 Carbon Intensity
0.5% net imports Electricity imports

In 2022, Colombia's total electricity consumption stood at 188.31 watts/person, significantly lower than the global average of 412 watts/person. The majority of this electricity, approximately 75%, comes from low-carbon sources, especially hydropower which accounts for over 70% of the total energy consumed. This heavy reliance on hydropower demonstrates Colombia's commitment to clean energy production. Unfortunately, nearly a quarter of the country's electricity still comes from fossil fuels, with gas being the dominant source, followed by coal and oil. Minimal contributions are made by biofuels, solar and wind power. This lower level of electricity generation, along with dependency on fossil fuels, could have routine implications such as possible power shortages and detrimental environmental impacts. Furthermore, it's worth mentioning that less than 1% of Colombia's electricity consumption is made up of net imports.


To enhance its low-carbon electricity generation, Colombia can learn from countries that have successfully diversified their clean energy sources. For instance, Sweden, France and Finland have significantly expanded their nuclear electricity generation, with per person values well in excess of Colombia's total electricity consumption. While nuclear power might not be suitable for all countries due to its high initial cost and waste disposal challenges, it can offer a substantial boost to low-carbon electricity generation. Wind is another viable source; Denmark stands as a prime example, followed by Sweden and Norway. Finally, solar energy represents a highly promising avenue for Colombia, given its geographical position near the equator. Australia’s successful implementation of solar energy could serve as an ideal model here.


The history of low-carbon electricity in Colombia is strongly linked with the fluctuating performance of hydropower since the mid-1980s. In the initial years, from 1986 to 1994, there was a consistent increase in electricity generation, with only one notable setback in 1992. However, the late 90s through the early 2000s witnessed a volatile period with multiple instances of net negative growth interspersed with periods of recovery. From 2011 onwards, signs of stabilization started to emerge as the country saw more consistent growth in hydropower production, despite negative fluctuations in 2014, 2018 and 2020. The last two years have continued the trend of positive growth, suggesting hope for the sector's future.

Data Sources

For the years 1975 to 1989 the data sources are World Bank and IEA (imports/exports).
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2016 the data source is Ember.
For the year 2017 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2018 to 2022 the data source is Ember.