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Electricity in Pakistan in 2023

Global Ranking: #85
41.1% #80 Low-carbon electricity
37.97 % #86 Electrification
79.70 watts #163 Generation / person
368.67 gCO2eq/kWh #91 Carbon Intensity

As of 2023, Pakistan's electricity generation stands at approximately 161 TWh, with a significant portion coming from fossil fuels. More than half of the electricity, about 95 TWh, is generated from fossil energy sources such as gas and coal. Low-carbon or clean energy sources contribute around 66 TWh to the total, with the largest shares coming from hydropower (about 38 TWh) and nuclear (about 22 TWh). Wind and solar collectively generate almost 5 TWh, which is relatively small. Compared to the global average electricity consumption of 432 watts per person, the overall generation hints at Pakistan lagging behind in terms of per capita access to electricity, which can impact economic development and quality of life by limiting industrial capacity and household energy security.


To improve its clean electricity generation, Pakistan could significantly benefit from expanding its existing nuclear power plants, leveraging the already substantial 22 TWh generated from nuclear energy. Learning from countries like the United States and France, which generate substantial nuclear power, Pakistan can enhance its nuclear capacity to ensure consistent and reliable clean energy. Additionally, lessons can be gleaned from China's rapid deployment of solar power, which stands at an impressive 584 TWh. Scaling up solar and wind energy by adopting best practices from countries like India and Brazil, which generate significant power from these sources, could provide Pakistan with diversified and sustainable electricity solutions that mitigate the negative impacts of fossil fuels, such as climate change and air pollution.


Looking at the historical data, Pakistan's journey in low-carbon electricity generation has shown fluctuating trends. In the early 1980s and 1990s, hydropower saw incremental increases, contributing positively to the grid, though there were significant declines in certain years such as 1996, 1999, and 2000 due to various factors. Noteworthy expansions occurred in 2002 and 2003, with substantial year-on-year growth. The years 2017 and onwards saw substantial increases in nuclear electricity, particularly in 2021 and 2022, showing positive growth trajectories. This focus on nuclear can be regarded as a pivotal strategy for Pakistan's clean energy future. In 2023, Pakistan saw another rise in hydropower by about 3.3 TWh, indicating a continued commitment to low-carbon sources. This historical analysis underscores the importance of consistency and support in low-carbon infrastructure to ensure reliable and sustainable energy production.

Electricity Imports and Exports

Balance of Trade

Data Sources

For the years 1980 to 1984 the data source is EIA.
For the years 1985 to 1989 the data source is Energy Institute.
For the years 1990 to 1999 the data source is IEA.
For the years 2000 to 2023 the data source is Ember.
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